Optics of human eye: 400 years of exploration from Galileo's time.

  title={Optics of human eye: 400 years of exploration from Galileo's time.},
  author={Pablo Artal and Juan Tabernero},
  journal={Applied optics},
  volume={49 16},
We present a brief historical background and a description of the main features of the eye's optical properties: the eye is a simple, but rather optimized, optical instrument. It is only since Galileo's time that the importance of the eye as a part of different optical instruments has driven a continuous scientific exploration of ocular optics. In the past decade, the use of wavefront sensing technology allowed us to complete our understating of eye optics as a robust aplanatic system. 

Figures from this paper

Quality of vision: beyond the fields of ophthalmology and optics
The first stage of the visual process is the formation of the retinal image through the optical system of the eye. The quality of the retinal image influences basic visual tasks, such as resolution
Imaging properties of the light sword optical element used as a contact lens in a presbyopic eye model.
The paper analyzes the imaging properties of the light sword optical element applied as a contact lens to the presbyopic human eye and introduces quantitative parameters characterizing output images of optotypes obtained in numerical simulations.
Development of an optical simulator of the human eye
A dynamic simulator was developed that allows the user to optically characterize an eye based on age and distance to an object being observed accordingly with one existing model and can be used in developing new eye models or analyze eye safety issues.
Wide-field optical model of the human eye with asymmetrically tilted and decentered lens that reproduces measured ocular aberrations
This work proposes an optically accurate wide-field schematic eye that reproduces the complete aberration profile of the human eye across a wide visual field and outlines a robust reverse building eye modeling technique that is capable of predicting trends beyond those defined explicitly in the optimization routine.
Optical eye simulator for laser dazzle events.
An optical simulator of the human eye and its application to laser dazzle events are presented and it is demonstrated that this kind of advanced optical eye simulation can be used to represent Laser dazzle and has the potential to extend the range of applicability of analytical models.
Contrast transfer characteristics of the light sword optical element designed for presbyopia compensation
The paper discusses the abilities of the light sword optical element (LSOE) for presbyopia compensation and presents adequate analysis for other elements potentially useful in ophthalmology as reading glasses, bifocal lenses and axicons.
Correction of the Aberrations of the Eye Using Adaptive Optics with Pupil Tracking
Pupil tracking which is an indispensable tool for retinal imaging in high resolution can be effectively used as a part of the adaptive optics as a result of the fact that indeed eye movements constitute an important part ofThe ocular wavefront dynamics.
Strehl ratios characterizing optical elements designed for presbyopia compensation.
The results obtained allow to state that the LSOE exhibits much more uniform characteristics of the Strehl ratio comparing with other known hitherto elements and therefore it could be a promising aid to compensate for the insufficient accommodation range of the human eye.
New trends in intraocular lens imaging
A theoretical approach is presented that considers the modification of less conventional ocular parameters to compensate for possible refractive errors after the IOL implant.
Analyzing Effect of Waterclefts on Visual Functions Via Optical Simulations
It was revealed that eyes withWC below the posterior subcapsule are more hyperopic than those with WC below the anterior sub Capsule, and the former have a higher HOA and lower MTF than the latter.


The Eye as an Optical Instrument: From Camera Obscura to Helmholtz's Perspective
The development of optometers, ophthalmometers, and ophthalmoscopes is presented historically, with emphasis on how these instruments and camera analogies helped scientists to understand the functions of the eye, especially the enigma of accommodation.
Analysis of the performance of the Hartmann-Shack sensor in the human eye.
An analysis of the accuracy and limitations of the sensor using experimental results and computer simulations and compared the ocular modulation transfer function obtained from simultaneously recorded double-pass and Hartmann-Shack images.
The eye's aplanatic answer
Analysis by sophisticated wavefront-sensing technology and customized ray-tracing has now revealed that the eye is actually an aplanatic design, with the cornea and lens compensating each other's aberrations.
Dynamics of the eye's wave aberration.
Calculations suggest that a perfect adaptive optics system with a closed-loop bandwidth of 1-2 Hz could correct these aberrations well enough to achieve diffraction-limited imaging over a dilated pupil.
The chromatic eye: a new reduced-eye model of ocular chromatic aberration in humans.
The reduced eye was further modified by changing the refracting surface to an aspherical shape to reduce the amount of spherical aberration, providing an improved account of both the longitudinal and transverse forms of ocular chromatic aberration.
Light distribution on the retina of a wide-angle theoretical eye.
  • A. Kooijman
  • Physics
    Journal of the Optical Society of America
  • 1983
In a theoretical eye with spherical and aspheric surfaces, the retinal illumination is calculated if a Ganzfeld luminance field is used. The resulting retinal light distribution is nearly homogeneous
Wide-angle chromatic aberration corrector for the human eye.
A two-triplet system for correcting the average longitudinal chromatic aberration of the eye while keeping a reasonably wide field of view and the effect of the corrector on visual performance is evaluated.
Image, eye, and retina (invited review).
  • N. Wade
  • Medicine
    Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, image science, and vision
  • 2007
Advances in understanding the initial stages of the visual process have been made over the centuries. This heritage will be reviewed with respect to the passage of light through the eye, as well as
Compensation of corneal aberrations by the internal optics in the human eye.
The amount of aberration of both the cornea and internal optics was found to be larger than for the complete eye, indicating that the first surface of the corneal topography and the internal ocular optics partially compensate for each other's aberrations and produce an improved retinal image.