Optical properties of deep glacial ice at the South Pole

@article{Ackermann2006OpticalPO,
  title={Optical properties of deep glacial ice at the South Pole},
  author={M. Ackermann and J. Ahrens and X. Bai and M. Bartelt and S. Barwick and R. Bay and T. Becka and J. Becker and K. Becker and P. Berghaus and E. Bernardini and D. Bertrand and D. Boersma and S. B{\"o}ser and O. Botner and A. Bouchta and O. Bouhali and C. Burgess and T. Burgess and T. Castermans and D. Chirkin and B. Collin and J. Conrad and J. Cooley and D. Cowen and A. Davour and C. Clercq and C. Heros and P. Desiati and T. DeYoung and P. Ekstr{\"o}m and T. Feser and T. Gaisser and R. Ganugapati and H. Geenen and L. Gerhardt and A. Goldschmidt and A. Gro{\ss} and A. Hallgren and F. Halzen and K. Hanson and D. Hardtke and T. Harenberg and T. Hauschildt and K. Helbing and M. Hellwig and P. Herquet and G. Hill and J. Hodges and Daan Hubert and B. Hughey and P. O. Hulth and K. Hultqvist and S. Hundertmark and J. Jacobsen and K. Kampert and A. Karle and M. Kestel and G. Kohnen and L. K{\"o}pke and M. Kowalski and K. Kuehn and R. Lang and H. Leich and M. Leuthold and I. Liubarsky and J. Lundberg and J. Madsen and P. Marciniewski and H. Matis and C. McParland and T. Messarius and Y. Minaeva and P. Mio{\vc}inovi{\'c} and R. Morse and K. Munich and R. Nahnhauer and J. Nam and T. Neunh{\"o}ffer and P. Niessen and D. Nygren and P. Olbrechts and A. Pohl and R. Porrata and P. Price and G. Przybylski and K. Rawlins and E. Resconi and W. Rhode and M. Ribordy and S. Richter and J. Martino and H. Sander and S. Schlenstedt and D. Schneider and R. Schwarz and A. Silvestri and M. Solarz and G. Spiczak and C. Spiering and M. Stamatikos and D. Steele and P. Steffen and R. Stokstad and K. Sulanke and I. Taboada and O. Tarasova and L. Thollander and S. Tilav and W. Wagner and C. Walck and M. Walter and Yi Wang and C. Wiebusch and R. Wischnewski and H. Wissing and K. Woschnagg},
  journal={Journal of Geophysical Research},
  year={2006},
  volume={111},
  pages={1-26}
}
We have remotely mapped optical scattering and absorption in glacial ice at the South Pole for wavelengths between 313 and 560 nm and depths between 1100 and 2350 m. We used pulsed and continuous light sources embedded with the AMANDA neutrino telescope, an array of more than six hundred photomultiplier tubes buried deep in the ice. At depths greater than 1300 m, both the scattering coefficient and absorptivity follow vertical variations in concentration of dust impurities, which are seen in… Expand
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