Optical properties of deep glacial ice at the South Pole

@article{Ackermann2006OpticalPO,
  title={Optical properties of deep glacial ice at the South Pole},
  author={Markus Ackermann and James P Ahrens and Xinhua Bai and Michael Bartelt and Steven W. Barwick and Ryan Bay and T. Becka and Julia K. Becker and Kurt H. Becker and Patrick Berghaus and Enrico Bernardini and Daniel Bertrand and David J. Boersma and Sebastian B{\"o}ser and Olga Botner and Adam Bouchta and Othmane Bouhali and Cliff P. Burgess and Thomas Burgess and Thierry Castermans and Dmitry Chirkin and B. Collin and Janet M. Conrad and Jodi Cooley and D. F. Cowen and Anna Davour and Catherine De Clercq and C. P{\'e}rez de los Heros and Paolo Desiati and Tyce DeYoung and Peter Ekstr{\"o}m and Thomas Feser and Thomas K. Gaisser and R. Ganugapati and Heiko Geenen and Lisa Marie Gerhardt and Azriel Goldschmidt and A. Gross and Allan Hallgren and Francis Halzen and Kael D. Hanson and David Hardtke and Torsten Harenberg and T. Hauschildt and Klaus Helbing and Martin F. Hellwig and Ph. Herquet and Gary C. Hill and J. Hodges and Daan Hubert and Brennan Hughey and Per Olof Hulth and Klas Hultqvist and Stephan Hundertmark and Janet S. Jacobsen and K-H. Kampert and Albrecht Karle and Martin Kestel and Georges Kohnen and Lutz K{\"o}pke and Marek Kowalski and Kyler W. Kuehn and Rodrigo Guedes Lang and Henri Leich and Matthias J. Leuthold and Igor Liubarsky and Johan Lundberg and J. Madsen and Pawel Marciniewski and Howard S. Matis and C. P. McParland and T. Messarius and Yu. V. Minaeva and Predrag Mio{\vc}inovi{\'c} and Robert M. Morse and K. Munich and Rolf Nahnhauer and Jiwoo Nam and Tanja Neunh{\"o}ffer and Peter Niessen and David R. Nygren and Ph. Olbrechts and A. C. Pohl and Rodin Antonio Porrata and P. Buford Price and Gerald T. Przybylski and Katherine Rawlins and Elisa Resconi and Wolfgang Rhode and Mathieu Ribordy and Steffen Richter and Julio Rodr{\'i}guez Martino and H. G. Sander and Stefan Schlenstedt and David A. Schneider and Robert Schwarz and Andrea Silvestri and M. Solarz and G. M. Spiczak and Christian Spiering and Michael Stamatikos and D. Steele and P. Steffen and Robert G. Stokstad and K-H. Sulanke and Ignacio J. Taboada and Oksana Tarasova and L. Thollander and Serap Tilav and Wolfgang Wagner and Christian Walck and Marc Walter and Yi Wang and Christopher Wiebusch and Ralf Wischnewski and Henrike Wissing and Kurt Woschnagg},
  journal={Journal of Geophysical Research},
  year={2006},
  volume={111},
  pages={1-26}
}
We have remotely mapped optical scattering and absorption in glacial ice at the South Pole for wavelengths between 313 and 560 nm and depths between 1100 and 2350 m. We used pulsed and continuous light sources embedded with the AMANDA neutrino telescope, an array of more than six hundred photomultiplier tubes buried deep in the ice. At depths greater than 1300 m, both the scattering coefficient and absorptivity follow vertical variations in concentration of dust impurities, which are seen in… 

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Optical properties of ice and snow

  • S. Warren
  • Environmental Science, Physics
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A
  • 2019
The interactions of electromagnetic radiation with ice, and with ice-containing media such as snow and clouds, are determined by the refractive index and absorption coefficient (the ‘optical

Attenuation of acoustic waves in glacial ice and salt domes

[1] Two classes of natural solid media, glacial ice and salt domes, are under consideration as media in which to deploy instruments for detection of neutrinos with energy >10 18 eV. Though

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...

References

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TLDR
The laser pulse method uses transit-time distributions of pulses from a variable-frequency laser sent between emitters and receivers embedded in the ice to allow remote mapping of gross structure in dust concentration as a function of depth in glacial ice.

Optical properties of deep ice at the South Pole: scattering.

TLDR
Freshly grown laboratory ice exhibits a large Rayleigh-like scattering that the authors attribute to the much higher density of decorated dislocations than in glacial ice, likely due to dislocation decorated discontinuously with impurities.

Remote sensing of dust in deep ice at the South Pole

A three-dimensional array of phototubes in deep ice at the South Pole called the Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detector Array (AMANDA) is recording Cherenkov light pulses that serve as tracers of

Optical Properties of the South Pole Ice at Depths Between 0.8 and 1 Kilometer

TLDR
The optical properties of the ice at the geographical South Pole have been investigated at depths between 0.8 and 1 kilometer and the measured inverse scattering length on bubbles decreases linearly with increasing depth in the volume of ice investigated.

A deep high‐resolution optical log of dust, ash, and stratigraphy in South Pole glacial ice

We describe a new dust logger designed to operate in water‐filled IceCube boreholes in South Pole ice, and we give examples of its performance. We recorded optical effects due to bubbles, dust, and

Climate logging with a new rapid optical technique at Siple Dome

The dust logger design is based on a decade of experience in the use of light sources to measure optical properties of deep Antarctic ice. Light is emitted at the top of the instrument by

UV and optical light transmission properties in deep ice at the South Pole

Both absorption and scattering of light at wavelengths 410 to 610 nanometers were measured in the South Pole ice at depths 0.8 to 1 kilometer with the laser calibration system of the Antarctic Muon

Temperature profile for glacial ice at the South Pole: Implications for life in a nearby subglacial lake

TLDR
Measurements of temperature vs. depth down to 2,345 m in ice at the South Pole, within 10 km from a subglacial lake seen by airborne radar profiling, and semiempirical expression for strain rate vs. shear stress show that the IceCube neutrino observatory will be able to map the three-dimensional ice-flow field within a larger volume and at lower temperatures than has heretofore been possible.

Attenuation of acoustic waves in glacial ice and salt domes

[1] Two classes of natural solid media, glacial ice and salt domes, are under consideration as media in which to deploy instruments for detection of neutrinos with energy >10 18 eV. Though

Temperature Dependence of Absorption in Ice at 532 nm.

TLDR
A YAG laser was used to emit nanosecond pulses of light at 532 nm at depths from 1185 to 2200 m in Antarctic ice, corresponding to temperatures increasing from 229 to 249 K, and the temperature dependence of absorptivity was determined.