A review of imaging methods for measuring drug release at nanometre scale: a case for drug delivery systems.
- Ketan Pancholi
- Expert opinion on drug delivery
Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic (PAS), photothermal deflection (PDS) and Raman spectroscopy belong to the modern innovative noninvasive analytical tools that are beginning to be recognized as highly potential techniques for the noninvasive study of biological tissues and human skin under in vivo conditions. They can be applied to obtain information regarding the molecular composition of the skin down to several hundred micrometers below the skin surface. All three methods allow depth-resolved investigations. While PAS and PDS use a frequency modulation of the excitation beam to reach deeper regions in the sample, the principle of confocal Raman microspectroscopy (CRM) is a movement of the specimen in the focal plane. In consideration of depth measurements PAS and PDS complete the applicable spectrum of CRM, since Raman microscopy requires particular transparent materials.