Optical indications of electrical activity and excitation-contraction coupling in the early embryonic heart.

@article{Kamino1989OpticalIO,
  title={Optical indications of electrical activity and excitation-contraction coupling in the early embryonic heart.},
  author={Kohtaro Kamino and Akihiko Hirota and Hitoshi Komuro},
  journal={Advances in biophysics},
  year={1989},
  volume={25},
  pages={45-93}
}
Complete understanding of the ontogenesis and early development of electrical activity and its related contraction has been hampered by our inability to apply conventional electrophysiological techniques to the early embryonic heart. Direct intracellular measurement of electrical events in the early embryonic heart is impossible because the cells are too small and frail to be impaled with microelectrodes. Optical signals from voltage-sensitive dyes have provided a new and powerful tool for… CONTINUE READING

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