Optical clock technologies for global navigation satellite systems

  title={Optical clock technologies for global navigation satellite systems},
  author={Thilo Schuldt and Martin Gohlke and Markus Oswald and Jan W{\"u}st and Tim Blomberg and K. D{\"o}ringshoff and Ahmad Bawamia and Andreas Wicht and Matthias Lezius and Kai Voss and Markus C. Krutzik and Sven Herrmann and Evgeny V. Kovalchuk and Achim Peters and Claus Braxmaier},
  journal={GPS Solutions},
Future generations of global navigation satellite systems (GNSSs) can benefit from optical technologies. Especially optical clocks could back-up or replace the currently used microwave clocks, having the potential to improve GNSS position determination enabled by their lower frequency instabilities. Furthermore, optical clock technologies—in combination with optical inter-satellite links—enable new GNSS architectures, e.g., by synchronization of distant optical frequency references within the… 
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