Optical and non‐optical methods for detection and characterization of microparticles and exosomes

  title={Optical and non‐optical methods for detection and characterization of microparticles and exosomes},
  author={Edwin van der Pol and Alfons G. Hoekstra and Auguste Sturk and Cornelis Otto and Ton G. van Leeuwen and R. Nieuwland},
  journal={Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis},
Summary.  Microparticles and exosomes are cell‐derived microvesicles present in body fluids that play a role in coagulation, inflammation, cellular homeostasis and survival, intercellular communication, and transport. Despite increasing scientific and clinical interest, no standard procedures are available for the isolation, detection and characterization of microparticles and exosomes, because their size is below the reach of conventional detection methods. Our objective is to give an overview… 

Elucidating Methods for Isolation and Quantification of Exosomes: A Review

This comprehensive review discusses the various standard methods such as ultracentrifugation, ultrafiltration, size-exclusion chromatography, precipitation, immunoaffinity, and microfluidic technologies for the isolation of exosomes.

Innovation in detection of microparticles and exosomes

This review focuses on the relatively high throughput detection of vesicles in suspension by flow cytometry, resistive pulse sensing, and nanoparticle tracking analysis, and four methods that are not commercially available: Raman microspectroscopy, micro nuclear magnetic resonance, small‐angle X‐ray scattering (SAXS), and anomalous SAXS.

[Microfluidic strategies for separation and analysis of circulating exosomes].

An overview of current microfluidic strategies for separation and analysis of circulating exosomes is provided, and existing separation methods are divided into two categories based on exosome physical properties and immune capture.

Aggregation by lectins as an approach for exosome isolation from biological fluids: Validation for proteomic studies

The validation showed that the sedimentation of lectin-aggregated exosomes is a suitable approach for the isolation of these microvesicles from the complete conditioned culture medium in a research-laboratory setup.

Elucidating diversity of exosomes: biophysical and molecular characterization methods.

This review summarizes, first, biophysical techniques based on spectroscopy and other principles, and second, antibody-based molecular techniques including flow cytometry, transmission electron microscopy and third, nanotechnology-dependent exosome characterization methodologies.

Selected Tetraspanins Functionalized Niosomes as Potential Standards for Exosome Immunoassays

The design, development and functional characteristics of fully artificial exosomes based on tetraspanin extracellular loops-coated niosomes, produced by bio-nanotechnology methods based on supra-molecular chemistry and recombinant protein technology are presented.

Exosomes and Microvesicles: Identification and Targeting By Particle Size and Lipid Chemical Probes

This Minireview proposes that detection of exosome and microvesicle membrane curvature with lipid chemical probes that sense membrane shape is a distinctly promising method for identifying and targeting these vesicles.

Progress in Nanomaterials-Based Optical and Electrochemical Methods for the Assays of Exosomes

Recent progress in nanomaterials-based biosensors for the detection of cancer-derived exosomes, including fluorescence, colorimetry, surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopic, electrochemistry, Electrochemiluminescence and so on are summarized.

Light-scattering flow cytometry for identification and characterization of blood microparticles.

This work describes a novel approach to study blood microparticles using the scanning flow cytometer, which measures light scattering patterns (LSPs) of individual particles, and employed a deconvolution algorithm to determine size and refractive index distributions of the whole population ofmicroparticles.



Flow cytometric measurement of microparticles: Pitfalls and protocol modifications

The need to standardize assay protocols in order to obtain consistent measurements of microparticle levels is illustrated, as elevated levels of platelet- and erythrocyte-derived microparticles were detected in heparin and PPACK-anticoagulated samples as compared to samples anticoagulate with ACD or sodium citrate.

Cell‐derived microparticles contain caspase 3 in vitro and in vivo

The presence of caspase 3 in MP from anucleated cell types, however, suggests that its presence may not necessarily be related to apoptosis in vivo but may be associated with casp enzyme 3 activation unrelated to apoptotic conditions.

Cell-derived microparticles in haemostasis and vascular medicine.

The literature regarding microparticles in their widest definition, including ectosomes and exosomes, are reviewed, to focus mainly on their role in haemostasis and vascular medicine.

Cellular microparticles: what are they bad or good for?

  • J. Freyssinet
  • Biology
    Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH
  • 2003
The hemostasis laboratory offers the most appropriate tools for the assessment of the in vivo significance of microparticles, since they are thought to reflect a balance between cell stimulation, proliferation, and death and it is conceivable that they are discerned as sensors for the maintenance of homeostasis in multicellular organisms.

Human cell‐derived microparticles promote thrombus formation in vivo in a tissue factor‐dependent manner

Human cell‐derived microparticles promote thrombus formation in vivo in a TF‐dependent manner and might be the direct cause of an increased thromboembolic tendency in various patient groups.

Characterization and comprehensive proteome profiling of exosomes secreted by hepatocytes.

The first extensive proteome of a hepatocyte-derived exosome population is established which should be useful in furthering the understanding of the hepatic function and in the identification of components that may serve as biomarkers for hepatic alterations.

Detection and enumeration of single nanometric particles: A confocal optical design for fluorescence flow cytometry

Nanometer-sized particles are increasingly important in fields ranging from technology development to environmental analysis. Traditionally, quantification of biological nanometric particles, such as

Membrane-derived microvesicles: important and underappreciated mediators of cell-to-cell communication

The pleiotropic effects of MV that are important for communication between cells, as well as the role of MV in carcinogenesis, coagulation, immune responses and modulation of susceptibility/infectability of cells to retroviruses or prions are discussed.

Cell-derived microparticles generated in patients during cardiopulmonary bypass are highly procoagulant.

This study is the first to demonstrate that microparticles generated in vivo can stimulate coagulation and stimulated formation of thrombin in vitro.