Optical Monitoring and Forecasting Systems for Harmful Algal Blooms: Possibility or Pipe Dream?


Monitoring programs for harmful algal blooms Field data will provide inputs to optically based eco­ (HABs) are currently reactive and provide little or no system models, which are fused to the observational means for advance warning. Given this, the develnetworks through data-assimilation methods. Poten­ opment of algal forecasting systems would be of tial model structure and data-assimilation methods great use because they could guide traditional monare reviewed. itoring programs and provide a proactive means for Key index words: bio-optics; forecasting; harmful alresponding to HABs. Forecasting systems will require gal blooms; remote sensing near real-time observational capabilities and hydro­ dynamic/biological models designed to run in the forecast mode. These observational networks must An early forecasting system ‘‘The oyster is unsea­ detect and forecast over ecologically relevant spatial/ sonable and unwholesome in all months that have temporal scales. One solution is to incorporate a mul­ not the letter ‘r’ in their name.’’ Henry Buttes from tiplatform optical approach utilizing remote sensing Dyets Dry Dinner, 1599 (The Handbook of Quotations, and in situ moored technologies. Recent advances in Classical & Medieval). instrumentation and data-assimilative modeling may Predicting and monitoring harmful algal blooms provide the components necessary for building an (HABs) is central to developing proactive strategies algal forecasting system. This review will outline the to ameliorate their impact on human health and the utility and hurdles of optical approaches in HAB deeconomies of coastal communities. As part of these tection and monitoring. In all the approaches, the efforts, numerous coastal monitoring programs have desired HAB information must be isolated and exbeen enacted. Monitoring programs have tradition­ tracted from the measured bulk optical signals. Exally detected HABs by visual confirmation (water dis­ amples of strengths and weaknesses of the current coloration and fish kills), illness to fish consumers approaches to deconvolve the bulk optical properties (Carder and Steward 1985, Riley et al. 1989, Pierce are illustrated. After the phytoplankton signal has

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@inproceedings{Schofield2010OpticalMA, title={Optical Monitoring and Forecasting Systems for Harmful Algal Blooms: Possibility or Pipe Dream?}, author={Oscar Schofield and Joe Grzymski and W. Paul Bissett and Gary J. Kirkpatrick and David F. Millie and Mark A. Moline and Collin S. Roesler}, year={2010} }