Cristaux photoniques et gaps de photons
- Techniques de l’Ingénieur, AF3710, 2004.
The requirements in flow and band-width does not cease growing and the monomode optical fibre used currently in the systems of telecommunications starts particularly to show many limitations for the very big flows (>40Gb/s) in spite of the extraordinary performances of which it made proof in the past. The photonic crystal fibers are considered as a key solution for perfect optical communications. This new generation of optical fibers is also regarded as the future data carrier for the systems of telecommunications. In these fibers, the cladding is distinguished from the core only by the presence of air-hollow what gives it an index of refraction average lower than that of the core. This work is devoted to the realization and the characterization of the optical components containing this type of fibre. These components are dedicated to applications of telecommunications. We use techniques of heating and stretching in order to adjust or to locally modify the geometrical and physical parameters of a PCF fiber such as the diameter of the core, the shape and the distribution of the holes and the index of refraction. These adjustments make it possible to obtain certain performances very requested in the systems of telecommunications at very high flows in order to solve the problems of attenuation and dispersion. The principle consists in changing the internal structure of fiber in order to reduce to the maximum the losses what makes it possible to have an excellent quality control of the optical transmission. Our goal is to conceive and to design of new optical components which allow the optical telecommunication systems to have more capacity and performances.