Opposing BOLD responses to reciprocated and unreciprocated altruism in putative reward pathways

  title={Opposing BOLD responses to reciprocated and unreciprocated altruism in putative reward pathways},
  author={James K. Rilling and Alan G. Sanfey and Jessica A Aronson and Leigh Nystrom and Jonathan D. Cohen},
Mesencephalic dopamine neurons are believed to facilitate reward-dependent learning by computing errors in reward predictions. We used fMRI to test whether this system was activated as expected in response to errors in predictions about whether a social partner would reciprocate an act of altruism. Nineteen subjects received fMRI scans as they played a series of single-shot Prisoner's Dilemma games with partners who were outside the scanner. In both ventromedial prefrontal cortex and ventral… 

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