Opportunity Organizations and Threat‐Induced Contention: Protest Waves in Authoritarian Settings1

  title={Opportunity Organizations and Threat‐Induced Contention: Protest Waves in Authoritarian Settings1},
  author={Paul Almeida},
  journal={American Journal of Sociology},
  pages={345 - 400}
  • P. Almeida
  • Published 1 September 2003
  • Political Science
  • American Journal of Sociology
The article combines two strands of political process theory (opportunity and threat) in a changing authoritarian context. Through the use of protest event, archival, and secondary sources on El Salvador between 1962 and 1981, the study examines the outbreak and forms of two protest waves that are generated by the temporal sequencing of political opportunity and threat environments. The specific opportunities of institutional access and competitive elections motivate regime challengers to form… 

Mobilization and Threat: Campaigns against Welfare Privatization in Four Cities

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Repressive Coverage in an Authoritarian Context: Threat, Weakness, and Legitimacy in South Korea's Democracy Movement

While most studies of the repression-mobilization relationship have focused on the impact of the former on the latter, recent work has shown that characteristics of protest can influence state

From Violence to Mobilization: Women, War, and Threat in Rwanda*

  • M. Berry
  • Political Science, Sociology
  • 2015
Theories of social movement emergence posit “threat” as an important concept in explanations of mobilization. This article uses the case of the 1994 Rwandan genocide to investigate whether threats

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Abstract Drawing on 61 interviews with Mexican immigrants and ethnographic participant observation conducted over three years, I compare social movement organizing in two cities in one California

Bureaucracy, Power, and Threat: Unions and Strikes in The United States, 1990-2001

The bureaucratization of many social movements has generated controversy among scholars and activists alike. While there is considerable evidence that formalized social movement organizations (SMOs)

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This article considers the strategic choices that radical activists face when a cycle of contention ends. It investigates the reorientation of the autonomous anarchists or left-libertarian activist

Contested Legitimacies

  • J. Grimm
  • Political Science, Sociology
  • 2022
Since the military overthrow of President Mursi in mid-2013, Egypt has witnessed an authoritarian rollback. Through a combination of repression and nationalist securitizing discourses, popular

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Growing protests in non-democratic countries are often seen as signals of regime decline. China, however, has remained stable amid surging protests. Playing by the Informal Rules highlights the

Mobilizing Structures and Cycles of Protest: Post-Stalinist Contention in Poland, 1954-1959

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The early warning of protracted political violence needs firm empirical footing in dynamic indicators of the political processes leading to political crises. This study provides a conceptual

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Conventional accounts of protest cycles posit a demonstration effect-successful protests incite other constituencies to activism. The author offers an alternative theory that builds on population

People power and political opportunities : Social movement mobilization and outcomes in the Philippines and Burma

This study assesses the relevance of the political opportunity framework for social movements in non-democratic contexts by applying it to two people power movements that occurred in the Philippines

High‐Risk Collective Action: Defending Human Rights in Chile, Uruguay, and Argentina1

  • M. Loveman
  • Political Science
    American Journal of Sociology
  • 1998
Under what conditions will individuals risk their lives to resist repressive states? This question is addressed through comparative analysis of the emergence of human rights organizations under


As compared with the fiercely repressive 1970s, the 1980s opened more opportunities to South Africa's black activists. International support for their cause was rising, black educational enrollment

Political Opportunities and Local Grassroots Environmental Movements: The Case of Minamata

This paper examines the Minamata mercury victims' grassroots movement. Our analysis demonstrates the value of using a political opportunity framework to understand local grassroot environmental

From Peaceful Protest to Guerrilla War: Micromobilization of the Provisional Irish Republican Army

  • R. White
  • Political Science
    American Journal of Sociology
  • 1989
Concentrating on the development of one politically violent organization, the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA), leads to conclusions that differ from more aggregate approaches. A quantitative

Repression and popular collective action: Evidence from the West Bank

This article examines the connection between state repression and the dynamics of popular collective action in the Palestinian West Bank from 1976 to 1985. Unlike traditional social movement research

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Baloyra argues that the deepening American involvement in what is basically a domestic conflict between Salvadorans has failed to eliminate the obstructionism and violence of the <disloyal right." He