Opportunity, Honor, and Action in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising of 19431

@article{Einwohner2003OpportunityHA,
  title={Opportunity, Honor, and Action in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising of 19431},
  author={Rachel L. Einwohner},
  journal={American Journal of Sociology},
  year={2003},
  volume={109},
  pages={650 - 675}
}
Macrolevel theories of social movement emergence posit that political opportunity “opens the door” for collective action. This article uses the case of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising to show that collective action need not always require opportunity. Warsaw Jews’ armed resistance was a response not to opportunity but to a lack thereof. Equally important was a strong sense of honor among the ghetto fighters: the hopelessness of their situation helped construct a motivational frame that equated… 
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