Opportunities for mesoscopics in thermometry and refrigeration: Physics and applications

  title={Opportunities for mesoscopics in thermometry and refrigeration: Physics and applications},
  author={Francesco Giazotto and Tero T. Heikkila and Arttu R. Luukanen and Alexander M. Savin and Jukka P. Pekola},
  journal={Reviews of Modern Physics},
This review presents an overview of the thermal properties of mesoscopic structures. The discussion is based on the concept of electron energy distribution, and, in particular, on controlling and probing it. The temperature of an electron gas is determined by this distribution: refrigeration is equivalent to narrowing it, and thermometry is probing its convolution with a function characterizing the measuring device. Temperature exists, strictly speaking, only in quasiequilibrium in which the… 
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Normal conductor-insulator-superconductor (NIS) junctions promise to be interesting for x-ray and phonon sensing applications, in particular due to the expected self-cooling of the N electrode by the