Opportunistic yeast pathogens: reservoirs, virulence mechanisms, and therapeutic strategies

  title={Opportunistic yeast pathogens: reservoirs, virulence mechanisms, and therapeutic strategies},
  author={Elizabeth J. Polvi and Xinliu A. Li and Teresa R. O’Meara and Michelle D. Leach and Leah E. Cowen},
  journal={Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences},
Life-threatening invasive fungal infections are becoming increasingly common, at least in part due to the prevalence of medical interventions resulting in immunosuppression. Opportunistic fungal pathogens of humans exploit hosts that are immunocompromised, whether by immunosuppression or genetic predisposition, with infections originating from either commensal or environmental sources. Fungal pathogens are armed with an arsenal of traits that promote pathogenesis, including the ability to… 
In the Crossroad Between Drug Resistance and Virulence in Fungal Pathogens
Interesting targets include the mechanisms underlying antifungal resistance, virulence, or, ideally, both, as these are the key traits that allow these pathogenic fungi to persist in the human host.
Glycobiology of Human Fungal Pathogens: New Avenues for Drug Development
The glycobiology of human fungal pathogens and how various components of the fungal cell wall, particularly cell wall polysaccharides and glycoconjugates, are involved in fungal pathogenicity, their biosynthesis and how they can be potentially exploited to develop novel antifungal treatment options are described.
In vitro infection models to study fungal–host interactions
Currently used in vitro models of fungal infections ranging from cell monolayers to microfluidic 3D organ-on-chip (OOC) platforms are reviewed and how OOC models can expand the toolbox for investigating interactions of fungi and their human hosts in the future are discussed.
From environmental adaptation to host survival: Attributes that mediate pathogenicity of Candida auris
Novel insights are presented into C. auris pathogenicity, revealing adaptations to human blood and environmental niches distinctive from other Candida species.
Pathogenesis of Fungal Infections
The following discussion intends to highlight the pathogenesis of fungal infections with special reference to central nervous system in humans.
Calcineurin in fungal virulence and drug resistance: Prospects for harnessing targeted inhibition of calcineurin for an antifungal therapeutic approach
Several lines of evidence indicate that the calcineurin signaling pathway, a target of the immunosuppressive drugs FK506 and cyclosporine A, orchestrates growth, virulence and drug resistance in a variety of fungal pathogens and can be exploited for novel antifungal drug development.
Regulated Cell Death as a Therapeutic Target for Novel Antifungal Peptides and Biologics
Recent advances in the field are examined regarding regulated cell death subroutines as potential therapeutic targets for innovative anti-infective peptides against pathogenic fungi.
Yeast Biofilms in the Context of Human Health and Disease
Candida, Cryptococcus and Histoplasma are the major yeast species responsible for high morbidity and mortality associated with mycoses and these yeasts colonize host tissues or medical devices to form biofilms which are highly resistant to antifungal drugs.
Antifungal Host Defense Peptides
Fungi infect billions of people every year, yet their contribution to the global burden of disease is largely unrecognized and the repertoire of antifungal agents is rather limited. Thus, treatment


Vaccines for invasive fungal infections
Improved understanding of the host defense and pathogenetic mechanisms that lead to invasive fungal infections means it should be feasible to develop vaccines targeting these infections, and the antigenic repertoire available for testing should not be limited to virulence factors.
Regulatory Circuitry Governing Fungal Development, Drug Resistance, and Disease
The circuitry regulating fungal morphogenesis and drug resistance and the impact of these pathways on virulence are reviewed, which represent a minute fraction of fungal diversity.
Hidden Killers: Human Fungal Infections
The importance of fungi as human pathogens is highlighted and the challenges the authors face in combating the devastating invasive infections caused by these microorganisms are discussed, in particular in immunocompromised individuals.
The impact of the host on fungal infections.
  • J. Perfect
  • Medicine, Biology
    The American journal of medicine
  • 2012
Expanding fungal pathogenesis: Cryptococcus breaks out of the opportunistic box
Cryptococcus neoformans is generally considered to be an opportunistic fungal pathogen because of its tendency to infect immunocompromised individuals, particularly those infected with HIV. However,
Cryptococcal Interactions with the Host Immune System
The innate and adaptive immune responses to Cryptococcus and cryptococcal strategies to evade the host's defense mechanisms are discussed and the importance of these strategies in pathogenesis and the potential of immunotherapy in cryptococcosis treatment are addressed.
Candida and Host Determinants of Susceptibility to Invasive Candidiasis
A mouse model of the infection, which introduces Candida yeast cells intravenously and mimics skin-derived bloodstream human candidiasis, has been successfully employed to study fungal and host factors that regulate susceptibility to the infection.
Innate antifungal immunity: the key role of phagocytes.
This review covers the functions of phagocytes in innate antifungal immunity, along with selected examples of the strategies that are used by fungal pathogens to subvert these defenses.
Hyphal Growth in Human Fungal Pathogens and Its Role in Virulence
  • A. Brand
  • Biology
    International journal of microbiology
  • 2012
Polarised hyphal growth is co-regulated with other factors that are essential for normal hypha function in vivo and is found to support the directional translocation between host environments, consolidation of the colony, nutrient acquisition and the formation of 3-dimensional matrices.
Genetic Susceptibility to Fungal Infections in Humans
  • M. Lionakis
  • Biology, Medicine
    Current Fungal Infection Reports
  • 2011
In this review, recent developments concerning genetic and immunologic factors that affect the risk for IFIs and CMC are critically discussed.