In the last few years, it has been observed a drastic surge of data traffic demand from mobile personal devices (smartphones and tablets) over cellular networks . Even though a significant improvement in cellular bandwidth provisioning is expected with LTE-Advanced systems, the overall situation is not expected to change significantly. Besides personal mobile devices, the diffusion of M2M and IoT devices is expected to increase at an exponential pace (the share of M2M devices is predicted to increase 5x by 2018 ). In order to meet such a high demand and to increase the capacity of the channel, several approaches have been proposed. All these approaches can be diveded in two main classes:
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