Opioids for Chronic Nonterminal Pain

@article{Ballantyne2006OpioidsFC,
  title={Opioids for Chronic Nonterminal Pain},
  author={Jane C. Ballantyne},
  journal={Southern Medical Journal},
  year={2006},
  volume={99},
  pages={1245-1255}
}
  • J. Ballantyne
  • Published 1 November 2006
  • Medicine, Psychology
  • Southern Medical Journal
This article first reviews the evidence for and against chronic opioid therapy. Evidence supporting the opioid responsiveness of chronic pain, including neuropathic pain, includes multiple randomized trials conducted over months (up to 8 months). Observational studies are conducted for longer, and many also support opioid analgesic efficacy. Concerns have arisen about loss of efficacy with prolonged use, possibly related to tolerance or opioid-induced hyperalgesia. Mechanisms of tolerance and… 
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