Opioids, pain, the brain, and hyperkatifeia: a framework for the rational use of opioids for pain.

@article{Shurman2010OpioidsPT,
  title={Opioids, pain, the brain, and hyperkatifeia: a framework for the rational use of opioids for pain.},
  author={Joseph Shurman and George F. Koob and Howard B. Gutstein},
  journal={Pain medicine},
  year={2010},
  volume={11 7},
  pages={1092-8}
}
OBJECTIVE Opioids have relieved more human suffering than any other medication, but their use is still fraught with significant concerns of misuse, abuse, and addiction. This theoretical article explores the hypothesis that opioid misuse in the context of pain management produces a hypersensitivity to emotional distress, termed hyperkatifeia. RESULTS In the misuse of opioids, neural substrates that mediate positive emotional states (brain reward systems) are compromised, and substrates… CONTINUE READING
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