Opioid antagonists and butorphanol dependence.

@article{Jaw1993OpioidAA,
  title={Opioid antagonists and butorphanol dependence.},
  author={S P Jaw and Beth Hoskins and Ing Kang Ho},
  journal={Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behavior},
  year={1993},
  volume={44 3},
  pages={497-500}
}
Butorphanol has been known to act on mu-, delta-, and kappa-opioid receptors, mu- and possibly delta-receptors are thought to mediate morphine dependence. Relative to morphine, butorphanol has a higher affinity for mu- and delta-receptors. In the present study, beta-funaltrexamine (beta-FNA) and naltrindole (NTI) (nonequilibrium mu- and delta-antagonist, respectively) were used to precipitate withdrawal in butorphanol-dependent rats. It was found that beta-FNA (12, 24, 48, and 100 nM) did not… CONTINUE READING
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