Opioid and nonopioid components independently contribute to the mechanism of action of tramadol, an 'atypical' opioid analgesic.

@article{Raffa1992OpioidAN,
  title={Opioid and nonopioid components independently contribute to the mechanism of action of tramadol, an 'atypical' opioid analgesic.},
  author={Robert B Raffa and Elmar Friderichs and Wolfgang Reimann and Richard P. Shank and Ellen E. Codd and Jeffry L. Vaught},
  journal={The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics},
  year={1992},
  volume={260 1},
  pages={275-85}
}
Tramadol hydrochloride produced dose-related antinociception in mouse abdominal constriction [ED50 = 1.9 (1.2-2.6) mg/kg i.p.], hot-plate [48 degrees C, ED50 = 21.4 (18.4-25.3) mg/kg s.c.; 55 degrees C, ED50 = 33.1 (28.2-39.1) mg/kg s.c.] and tail-flick [ED50 = 22.8 (19.2-30.1) mg/kg s.c.] tests. Tramadol also displayed antinociceptive activity in the rat air-induced abdominal constriction [ED50 = 1.7 (0.7-3.2) mg/kg p.o.] and hot-plate [51 degrees C, ED50 = 19.5 (10.3-27.5) mg/kg i.p.] tests… CONTINUE READING
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