Opioid Modulation of Pain Threshold in Fish

@article{Chervova2004OpioidMO,
  title={Opioid Modulation of Pain Threshold in Fish},
  author={L. S. Chervova and D. N. Lapshin},
  journal={Doklady Biological Sciences},
  year={2004},
  volume={375},
  pages={590-591}
}
Pain is a signal and defense response developed in the course of evolution as an adaptation increasing individuals' survival in their environment. Pain sensation allows an individual to identify the irritators that may injure its body and threaten its life. In addition to the system of pain sensation (nociceptive), humans and terrestrial vertebrates have an antipain (antinociceptive) morphofunctional system, which controls the threshold of pain sensitivity to sustain it at a functional level… Expand
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