As a result of improved treatment and patient survival, ophthalmic complications are now being seen with increasing frequency in AIDS, occurring in up to 75% of patients during the course of the disease. The eye may be involved by an AIDS-related microvasculopathy, which gives rise to cotton wool spots, and by opportunistic infections caused by a wide range of organisms, including cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster, Toxoplasma gondii, Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare, Treponema pallidum, Pneumocystis carinii and various fungal agents. Opportunistic infections may be the presenting sign of disseminated infection. The eye may also be involved by neoplasms such as Kaposi's sarcoma and lymphoma, and by intracranial disease. Ocular involvement may lead to blindness if untreated and prompt ophthalmological referral is essential. This article reviews the range of ocular diseases seen in HIV and AIDS, current therapeutic options and outcome.