Operant Conditioning of Specific Patterns of Neural and Muscular Activity

  title={Operant Conditioning of Specific Patterns of Neural and Muscular Activity},
  author={Eberhard E. Fetz and Dom V. Finocchio},
  pages={431 - 435}
In awake monkeys we recorded activity of single "motor" cortex cells, four contralateral arm muscles, and elbow position, while operantly reinforcing several patterns of motor activity. With the monkey's arm held semiprone in a cast hinged at the elbow, we reinforced active elbow movements and tested cell responses to passive elbow movements. With the cast immobilized we reinforced isometric contraction of each of the four muscles in isolation, and bursts of cortical cell activity with and… 
Correlations between activity of motor cortex cells and arm muscles during operantly conditioned response patterns
Results suggest that many precentral cells have a higher order relation to muscles than motoneurons, and that strong correlations so determined may operationally define a “functional relation”.
Motor Fields of Precentral Cells Elicited by Operant Reinforcement of Unit Activity
Under isometric conditions, operant bursts were often repeatedly correlated with EMG bursts in specific contralateral arm muscles, and many of the unit-muscle correlations observed when the unit was reinforced were replicated during other reinforced response patterns.
Learning and rhythmic human EMG in ecological perspective
  • M. Wetzel
  • Psychology, Biology
    Physiology & Behavior
  • 1990
“Master” Neurons Induced by Operant Conditioning in Rat Motor Cortex during a Brain-Machine Interface Task
Modifications during training target preferentially the neuron chosen to control the BMI, which acts then as a “master” neuron, leading in time the reconfiguration of activity in the local cortical network.
Patterns of population activity associated with the intentional control of single neuron firing rates in primate motor cortex
It is concluded that cortical activity can be reshaped to suit behavioral demands, but that intrinsic structure -- perhaps due to network connectivity patterns -- likely constrains the flexibility of population activity.


Response of Neurones in the Motor Cortex during Performance of a Simple Repetitive Arm Movement
ANALYSIS of the firing pattern of single cells in the brains of unanaesthetized animals promises to be a useful approach towards understanding brain mechanisms involved in the control of movement.
Predicting Measures of Motor Performance from Multiple Cortical Spike Trains
The results suggest that hypotheses concerning the response variables "controlled" by cortical motor systems may well depend upon whether or not the temporal relations between simultaneously active neurons are taken into account.
Relation of pyramidal tract activity to force exerted during voluntary movement.
  • E. Evarts
  • Psychology, Biology
    Journal of neurophysiology
  • 1968
It was found that for many PTNs, responses to the conditioned stimulus preceded the first peripheral electromyographic correlates of the conditioned response (wrist extension) and showed that they were not consequent upon feedback resulting from the movement.
Relation of human electromyogram to muscular tension.
Integrated actions and functions of the chief flexors of the elbow: a detailed electromyographic analysis.
A detailed electromyographic investigation of the actions of the biceps brachii, the Brachialis, and the brachioradialis was carried out in twenty normal young adults with a Stanley Cox multi-channel electromyograph equipped with audio and cathode-ray units and a thirty-five-millimeter linagraph camera, indicating the general trend of the behavior of these muscles in the majority of the subjects.
Ne~lrophysiological Basis o f Norrnal and Abnormal Motor Aclivifp, M .D
  • (Raven, IlewIett, N.Y.,
  • 1967