Operant Conditioning of Specific Patterns of Neural and Muscular Activity

@article{Fetz1971OperantCO,
  title={Operant Conditioning of Specific Patterns of Neural and Muscular Activity},
  author={Eberhard E. Fetz and Dom V. Finocchio},
  journal={Science},
  year={1971},
  volume={174},
  pages={431 - 435}
}
In awake monkeys we recorded activity of single "motor" cortex cells, four contralateral arm muscles, and elbow position, while operantly reinforcing several patterns of motor activity. With the monkey's arm held semiprone in a cast hinged at the elbow, we reinforced active elbow movements and tested cell responses to passive elbow movements. With the cast immobilized we reinforced isometric contraction of each of the four muscles in isolation, and bursts of cortical cell activity with and… 
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