Open source software projects as user innovation networks

@inproceedings{Hippel2002OpenSS,
  title={Open source software projects as user innovation networks},
  author={Eric von Hippel},
  year={2002}
}
Innovation development, production, distribution and consumption networks can be built up horizontally – with actors consisting only of innovation users (more precisely, “user/self-manufacturers”). “Free” and “open source” software projects are examples of such networks, and examples can be found in the case of physical products as well. User innovation networks can function entirely independently of manufacturers when (1) at least some users have sufficient incentive to innovate, (2) at least… 

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