Open and continuous fermentation: Products, conditions and bioprocess economy

@article{Li2014OpenAC,
  title={Open and continuous fermentation: Products, conditions and bioprocess economy},
  author={Teng Li and Xiangbin Chen and Jinchun Chen and Qiong Wu and Guoqiang Chen},
  journal={Biotechnology Journal},
  year={2014},
  volume={9}
}
Microbial fermentation is the key to industrial biotechnology. Most fermentation processes are sensitive to microbial contamination and require an energy intensive sterilization process. The majority of microbial fermentations can only be conducted over a short period of time in a batch or fed‐batch culture, further increasing energy consumption and process complexity, and these factors contribute to the high costs of bio‐products. In an effort to make bio‐products more economically competitive… 

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