Ontogeny of mirror behavior in two species of great apes

  title={Ontogeny of mirror behavior in two species of great apes},
  author={Sonam Robert},
  journal={American Journal of Primatology},
  • S. Robert
  • Published 1986
  • Biology, Psychology
  • American Journal of Primatology
Mirror image reactions of two infant apes, a female chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and a male orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus), born at the Zoo de Vincennes and the Jardin des Plantes of Paris, France, respectively, were studied and compared with those of children. Self‐recognition was also tested following 46.5 hours of mirror exposure by application of red marks on parts of the body invisible to the animal without the aid of the mirror. Results indicated that the behavior of the two young apes… 
Development of self-recognition in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).
The results suggest that self-recognition occurs at a slightly older age in chimpanzees than in human infants, and conform to the general pattern that great apes exhibit many cognitive skills comparable to those of 2-year-old humans.
Self-recognition in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): distribution, ontogeny, and patterns of emergence.
Results suggest that SR typically emerges at 4.5-8 years of age, at the population level the capacity declines in adulthood, and in group settings SR typically occurs within minutes of a subject's exposure to a mirror.
Self-recognition in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): distribution, ontogeny, and patterns of emergence
: Investigations of mirror self-recognition (SR) in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have had small samples and divergent methods. In Experiment 1, 105 chimpanzees (10 months to 40 years of age) were
Not all chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) show self-recognition
There are individual differences in mirror recognition behavior in chimpanzees, and that further consideration of the factors contributing to this phenomenon is needed, including the development of additional tests for self-recognition.
Viewing of Self and Nonself Images in a Group of Captive Orangutans (Pongo Pygmaeus Abellii)
It is suggested that data based on self-referent behavior of the same animal during self-viewing in a mirror and during viewing of its self-portrait and on behavior observed in the mark test are worth further investigation.
Monkeys, apes, mirrors and minds: The evolution of self-awareness in primates
The methodology and evidence for self-recognition in primates along with the assumption that this ability is an indicator of self-awareness are reviewed, and the failure of the gorilla to master the task is discussed in some detail.
Mirror Use by African Grey Parrots (Psittacus erithacus)
Two Grey parrots were tested on various types of mirror use: mirror image stimulation, mirror-mediated object discrimination, and a simple form of mirror- mediated spatial locating; these birds are the first nonmammalian subjects to exhibit all these behavior patterns.
What mirror self-recognition in nonhumans can tell us about aspects of self
To evaluate the significance of the test in discussions of the concept of self, some major arguments raised on the mirror task are presented and some major assumptions behind mirror self-recognition are questioned.


Self recognition in primates: A comparative approach to the bidirectional properties of consciousness.
A technique is described in which organisms are provided with extended exposure to mirrors and then given an explicit test of self-recognition (accomplished through the unobtrusive application of
Self‐awareness and the emergence of mind in primates
  • G. G. Gallup
  • Psychology, Biology
    American journal of primatology
  • 1982
An attempt is made to show that self‐awareness, consciousness, and mind are not mutually exclusive cognitive categories and that the emergence of self-awareness may be equivalent to the emergenceof mind.
Mirror self-image reactions before age two.
The results indicate the following age-related sequence of behavior before the mirror: the first prolonged and repeated reaction of an infant to his mirror image is that of a sociable “playmate” from about 6 through 12 months of age.
Development of Self-Recognition in the Infant.
A hypothesized five-stage developmental sequence of self-recognition behaviors was tested in 48 infants between 6 and 24 months of age, and the self-recognition sequence was compared to the
Failure to find self-recognition in mother-infant and infant-infant rhesus monkey pairs.
Two experiments in which rhesus monkeys were given paired access to a common mirror over an extended period and signs of self-recognition failed to emerge, indicating the absence in monkeys of an essential cognitive category for processing mirrored information about the self.
Mirror-image response during the first two years of life.
Analysis of videotaped records revealed that interest in viewing one's face did not vary with age among the 1- to 24-month-old subjects, suggesting that the infant observes the general configuration of the face for its intrinsic interest.
Development of mirror image responses in infancy.
The results showed a shift in body exploration away from self-manipulation toward visual attention to the mirror image and the peak of responsiveness to mirror image appeared in the 12-month-old group.
Chimpanzees: Self-Recognition
After prolonged exposure to their reflected images in mirrors, chimpanzees marked with red dye showed evidence of being able to recognize their own reflections. Monkeys did not appear to have this
Image spéculaire et image anti spéculaire. Expériences sur la construction de l'image de soi
Brefs exposes et commentaires de deux recherches successives. L'experience vitre-miroir avec une population de 18 couples de jeunes jumeaux : c'est vers l'âge de 12 mois que les reactions a l'image