Ontogeny of metabolism, thermoregulation and torpor in the house martin Delichon u. urbica (L.) and its ecological significance

@article{Prinzinger2004OntogenyOM,
  title={Ontogeny of metabolism, thermoregulation and torpor in the house martin Delichon u. urbica (L.) and its ecological significance},
  author={Roland Prinzinger and Klaus Siedle},
  journal={Oecologia},
  year={2004},
  volume={76},
  pages={307-312}
}
SummarySpecial energetic adaptations are of great evolutionary significance for birds that encounter transient problems in finding food during the breeding season. House martins, as aerial insectivores, encounter such problems during spells of bad weather, when they must survive on body reserves. This species employs the following behavioural and physiological adaptations to save energy: Low basal metabolic rate (only 43% of the values predicted by allometric equations); low thermal conductance… 
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It is shown that while torpor can substantially reduce energy expenditure during development of endotherms and hence is likely important for survival during energy bottlenecks, it also may enhance somatic growth when food is limited, and hypothesize that torpor during the development in endotherm is far more widespread than is currently appreciated.
Thermoregulation in African Green Pigeons (Treron calvus) and a re-analysis of insular effects on basal metabolic rate and heterothermy in columbid birds
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The absence of torpor in T. calvus lends support to the idea that species restricted to islands that are free of predators are more likely to use torpor than mainland species that face the risk of predation during the rest-phase, and that BMR is significantly lower in island species compared to those that occur on mainlands.
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The analysis strongly supports the view that hibernators and daily heterotherms are functionally distinct groups that probably have been subject to disruptive selection.
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TLDR
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In small, altricial birds and marsupials and placentals, the development of competent endothermic thermoregulation during cold exposure appears to be concurrent with the capability to display torpor, supporting the view that torpor is phylogenetically old and likely plesiomorphic.
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