Ontogeny of memory: An update on 40 years of work on infantile amnesia

@article{Madsen2016OntogenyOM,
  title={Ontogeny of memory: An update on 40 years of work on infantile amnesia},
  author={Heather Bronwyn Madsen and Jee Hyun Kim},
  journal={Behavioural Brain Research},
  year={2016},
  volume={298},
  pages={4-14}
}
  • H. Madsen, J. Kim
  • Published 1 February 2016
  • Psychology, Biology
  • Behavioural Brain Research
Infantile Amnesia: A Critical Period of Learning to Learn and Remember
TLDR
It is proposed that infantile amnesia reflects a developmental critical period during which the learning system is learning how to learn and remember.
The ontogeny of memory persistence and specificity
Recovery of memory from infantile amnesia is developmentally constrained.
TLDR
It is shown that the return of inhibitory avoidance memory in rats following a behavioral reactivation consisting of an exposure to the context and footshock is evident immediately after US and is limited by the developmental age at which the reactivations are presented; however, it is not influenced by maternal presence or the time interval between training and reactivation.
Infantile Amnesia Is Related to Developmental Immaturity of the Maintenance Mechanisms for Long-Term Potentiation
TLDR
Findings suggest that developmental immaturity of the maintenance mechanisms for E-LTP is linked to the occurrence of IA, and pharmacological blockade of GluN2B-containing NMDARs or PP2B effectively restored deficits of E- LTP and long-term memory retention observed in P20 mice.
Empirical Evidence Supporting Neural Contributions to Episodic Memory Development in Early Childhood: Implications for Childhood Amnesia.
TLDR
The results suggest that protracted neural development of the hippocampus, cortex, and connections between these regions contribute to the fragility of memories early in life and may ultimately contribute to childhood amnesia.
Associative memory persistence in three- to five-year-olds.
TLDR
The observed age differences in associative memory support the proposal that hippocampal-dependent memory systems undergo rapid development during the preschool years and have the potential to inform future work translating memory persistence and malleability research from rodent models to humans.
Adults who are more anxious and were anxiously attached as children report later first memories.
TLDR
It is suggested that poorer memory of early childhood is associated with greater childhood anxious attachment and anxiety in adulthood, and that this relation is partially mediated by Childhood anxious attachment.
The Stress Acceleration Hypothesis of Nightmares
TLDR
Two mechanisms are proposed: disruption of infantile amnesia allows normally forgotten early childhood memories to influence later emotions, cognitions and behavior, including the common expression of threats in nightmares; and alterations of normal emotion regulation processes of both waking and sleep lead to increased fear sensitivity and less effective fear extinction.
Sex differences in the neurochemistry of frontal cortex: Impact of early life stress
TLDR
It is found that sex‐dependent effects of stress are mediated by the age at which stress is experienced, age at test, and type of stress endured, and that a greater understanding of sex‐specific susceptibilities in response to stress across development will help to uncover risk factors for psychological disorders in vulnerable populations.
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