Ontogeny and phylogeny of facial expression of pain

@article{Chambers2015OntogenyAP,
  title={Ontogeny and phylogeny of facial expression of pain},
  author={Christine T. Chambers and Jeffrey S. Mogil},
  journal={PAIN},
  year={2015},
  volume={156},
  pages={798–799}
}
Facial expression of pain offers an important opportunity for better understanding, assessing, and managing pain. Certain facial muscle movements are sensitive and specific predictors of the presence and severity of pain. The facial display of pain has been found to be relatively consistent across human development (from infancy to adulthood),11 and between humans and nonhuman animals (see below). 
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