Determination of L-carnitine, acylcarnitine and total carnitine levels in plasma and tissues of camel (Camelus dromedarius).
The ontogeny and kinetics of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I) were investigated in hepatopancreas and muscle throughout four developmental stages (newly hatched larvae, 1-month-old juvenile, 3-month-old, and 6-month-old, respectively) of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. In hepatopancreas, the maximal velocity (V max) significantly increased from hatching to 1-month-old grass carp and then gradually declined at 6-month-old grass carp. In muscle, CPT I activity was the highest at 1-month-old grass carp, nearly twofold higher than that at hatching (P < 0.05). The Michaelis constant (K m) value was also the highest for 1-month-old in both tested tissues. Carnitine concentrations (FC, AC and TC) were the lowest for 3-month-old grass carp and remained relatively constant in both tissues from fish under the other developmental stages. The FC concentration in hepatopancreas and muscle at four developmental stages were less than the respective K m, indicating that grass carp required supplemental carnitine in their food to ensure that CPT I activity was not constrained by carnitine availability.