One person's modus ponens…: Comment on "The Markov blanket trick: On the scope of the free energy principle and active inference" by Raja and colleagues (2021).

  title={One person's modus ponens…: Comment on "The Markov blanket trick: On the scope of the free energy principle and active inference" by Raja and colleagues (2021).},
  author={Maxwell James D. Ramstead},
  journal={Physics of life reviews},
  • M. Ramstead
  • Published 8 August 2022
  • Philosophy
  • Physics of life reviews



On Bayesian Mechanics: A Physics of and by Beliefs

The aim of this paper is to introduce a field of study that has emerged over the last decade called Bayesian mechanics, comprising tools that enable us to model systems endowed with a particular partition, and to examine a duality between the free energy principle and the constrained maximum entropy principle.

A free energy principle for a particular physics

The main contribution is to examine the implications of Markov blankets for self-organisation to nonequilibrium steady-state and recover an information geometry and accompanying free energy principle that allows one to interpret the internal states of something as representing or making inferences about its external states.

Towards a Geometry and Analysis for Bayesian Mechanics

A simple case of Bayesian mechanics under the free energy principle is formulated in axiomatic terms, providing a related, but alternative, formalism to those driven purely by descriptions of random dynamical systems, and taking a further step towards a comprehensive statement of the physics of self-organisation in formal mathematical language.

Stochastic Chaos and Markov Blankets

This treatment of random dynamical systems considers the existence—and identification— of conditional independencies at nonequilibrium steady-state, and shows how Markov blankets can be identified to characterise the coupling between internal and external states in terms of a generalised synchrony or synchronisation of chaos.

A world beyond physics: the emergence and evolution of life

ist challenge: i.e., how to make sense of the idea that a cactus or a virus particle—or any organism lacking minimal consciousness—nonetheless has a genuine interest. Ecoholism is an even more

A free energy principle for generic quantum systems.

Psychophysical identity and free energy

  • Alex B. Kiefer
  • Computer Science
    Journal of the Royal Society Interface
  • 2020
An approach to implementing variational Bayesian inference in biological systems is considered, under which the thermodynamic free energy of a system directly encodes its variational free energy. In

Information Theory and Statistical Mechanics

Treatment of the predictive aspect of statistical mechanics as a form of statistical inference is extended to the density-matrix formalism and applied to a discussion of the relation between