The addition of 5',5',5'-trifluoroleucine (fluoroleucine) to leucine auxotrophs of Salmonella typhimurium permitted protein but not ribonucleic acid (RNA) synthesis to continue after leucine depletion. The uncoupling of the formation of these macromolecules by fluoroleucine was apparent if RNA and protein synthesis was measured either by the uptake of radioactive precursors or by direct chemical determinations. The analogue did not appear to be an inhibitor of RNA formation, since it was as effective as leucine in permitting RNA synthesis in a leucine auxotroph upon the addition of small amounts of chloramphenicol. In contrast to these data, fluoroleucine allowed continued protein and RNA formation in a leucine auxotroph of Escherichia coli strain W. In addition, contrary to the results obtained with S. typhimurium, the analogue replaced leucine for repression of the leucine bio-synthetic enzymes as well as the isoleucine-valine enzymes. We propose that these ambivalent effects of fluoroleucine on repression and RNA and protein synthesis in the two strains are due to differences in the ability of the analogue to attach to the various species of leucine transfer RNA.