On the universality and cultural specificity of emotion recognition: a meta-analysis.

  title={On the universality and cultural specificity of emotion recognition: a meta-analysis.},
  author={Hillary Anger Elfenbein and Nalini Ambady},
  journal={Psychological bulletin},
  volume={128 2},
A meta-analysis examined emotion recognition within and across cultures. Emotions were universally recognized at better-than-chance levels. Accuracy was higher when emotions were both expressed and recognized by members of the same national, ethnic, or regional group, suggesting an in-group advantage. This advantage was smaller for cultural groups with greater exposure to one another, measured in terms of living in the same nation, physical proximity, and telephone communication. Majority group… 

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