1. The time course of the hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the rat plantaris muscle was determined from measurements of total muscle mass and cross-section analysis of fixed muscle. 2. Muscle enlargement was induced by the surgical removal of the plantaris synergist muscles, the gastrocnemius and the soleus. 3. From the date of surgery through the third post-operative week, muscle enlargement is due to fiber hypertrophication (approximately 100% increase in diameter). After post-operative week three, muscle enlargement is due to a combination of hyperplasia and hypertrophy. At week four the cross-sectional areas return to control values. 4. The neuromuscular junction area was determined by measuring Karnovsky stained post-synaptic membrane. Only a modest 10-30% increase was noted at weeks 2 and 3 with a return to control levels at week 4. The differences were not statistically different.