On the success of a swindle: pollination by deception in orchids

@article{Schiestl2005OnTS,
  title={On the success of a swindle: pollination by deception in orchids},
  author={Florian P. Schiestl},
  journal={Naturwissenschaften},
  year={2005},
  volume={92},
  pages={255-264}
}
  • F. Schiestl
  • Published 1 June 2005
  • Environmental Science, Biology
  • Naturwissenschaften
A standing enigma in pollination ecology is the evolution of pollinator attraction without offering reward in about one third of all orchid species. Here I review concepts of pollination by deception, and in particular recent findings in the pollination syndromes of food deception and sexual deception in orchids. Deceptive orchids mimic floral signals of rewarding plants (food deception) or mating signals of receptive females (sexual deception) to attract pollen vectors. In some food deceptive… 
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Evidence that T. peruvianus flowers mimic the sexual pheromone of their pollinator's females is given, contributing to the understanding of the evolution of deceptive pollination.
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It is confirmed for the first time that highly specific pollination by fungus gnats is achieved by sexual deception in Pterostylis, and predicted that sexual deception will be widespread in the genus, although the diversity of floral forms suggests that other mechanisms may also operate.
Floral visual signal increases reproductive success in a sexually deceptive orchid
TLDR
This study provides further evidence that the coloured perianth in O. heldreichii is adaptive and thus adds to the olfactory signal to maximise pollinator attraction and reproductive success.
Pollinator-driven speciation in sexually deceptive orchids
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It is suggested that pollinator shift through changes in floral scent is predominant among closely related species in sexually deceptive orchids, which can provide a mechanism for pollinator-driven speciation in plants, if the resulting floral isolation is strong.
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