On the role of eyes and brain photoreceptors in the sparrow: Entrainment to light cycles

@article{McMillan2005OnTR,
  title={On the role of eyes and brain photoreceptors in the sparrow: Entrainment to light cycles},
  author={Joseph P. McMillan and Henry C. Keatts and Michael Menaker},
  journal={Journal of comparative physiology},
  year={2005},
  volume={102},
  pages={251-256}
}
SummaryThe eyes and extraretinal brain photoreceptor(s) of the House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) both contribute to entrainment of the locomotor rhythm. During exposure to a light cycle of low intensity 25 sparrows were entrained and eight free-ran (Table 1). Birds free-running under these conditions became entrained after the intensity of light reaching the brain was increased by plucking their head feathers (Fig. 1). Following carbon black injection beneath the skin over the skull of 23 of… 

On the role of eyes and brain photoreceptors in the sparrow: Arrhythmicity in constant light

Although extraretinal brain photoreceptors contribute to the production of arrhythmicity by constant light, the presence of the eyes is necessary for this phenomenon to occur (Table 2).

On the role of eyes and brain photoreceptors in the sparrow: Aschoff's rule

SummaryThe period (τ) of the House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) free-running activity rhythm obeys “Aschoff's Rule”, shortening when the level of constant illumination is increased and lengthening

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A diurnal light-dark rhythm presented to one of three photosensitive organs (the pineal gland and both eyes) can protect the eyes from the effects of constant light.

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Proportional effect of light on entrained circadian rhythms of birds and mammals

  • H. Pohl
  • Biology
    Journal of comparative physiology
  • 2004
SummaryCircadian rhythms of locomotor activity of two species of finches,Fringilla coelebs andCarduelis chloris, and four rodent species,Mesocricetus auratus, Glis glis, Eutamias sibiricus

References

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On the role of eyes and brain photoreceptors in the sparrow: Arrhythmicity in constant light

Although extraretinal brain photoreceptors contribute to the production of arrhythmicity by constant light, the presence of the eyes is necessary for this phenomenon to occur (Table 2).

On the role of eyes and brain photoreceptors in the sparrow: Aschoff's rule

SummaryThe period (τ) of the House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) free-running activity rhythm obeys “Aschoff's Rule”, shortening when the level of constant illumination is increased and lengthening

Extraretinal light perception in the sparrow. 3. The eyes do not participate in photoperiodic photoreception.

The intensity of light reaching the retina and that reaching the extraretinal photoreceptor were varied independently will make it possible to study brain photoreception in species of birds that will not tolerate blinding.

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The house sparrow (Passer domesticus) possesses an extraretinal photoreceptor(s) which is coupled to the "clock" system controlling the overt circadian rhythm of locomotor activity, and the sensitivity of this receptor and the response of the free-running period of the rhythm of blinded birds to constant light of various intensities are discussed.

Extraretinal light perception in the sparrow IV. Further evidence that the eyes do not participate in photoperiodic photoreception

Photoperiodic testicular growth in House Sparrows exposed to long days of orange-red light is exclusively controlled by extraretinal photoreceptors in the brain; the eyes are not involved.

Light perception by extraretinal receptors in the brain of the sparrow

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