On the rationale and interpretation of the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops.

@article{Squire2003OnTR,
  title={On the rationale and interpretation of the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops.},
  author={Geoffrey R. Squire and David R. Brooks and David A. Bohan and G. T. Champion and Roger E. Daniels and Alison J Haughton and Cathy Hawes and Matthew S. Heard and Mark O. Hill and Mike J. May and Juliet L. Osborne and J. N. Perry and David B. Roy and Ian P. Woiwod and Les G Firbank},
  journal={Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences},
  year={2003},
  volume={358 1439},
  pages={
          1779-99
        }
}
  • G. Squire, D. Brooks, +12 authors L. Firbank
  • Published 2003
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
Farmland biodiversity and food webs were compared in conventional and genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops of beet (Beta vulgaris L.), maize (Zea mays L.) and both spring and winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). GMHT and conventional varieties were sown in a split-field experimental design, at 60-70 sites for each crop, spread over three starting years beginning in 2000. This paper provides a background to the study and the rationale for its design and interpretation. It… Expand
Crop management and agronomic context of the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops.
  • G. Champion, M. May, +15 authors M. R. Thomas
  • Medicine
  • Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 2003
TLDR
Regression analysis of herbicide-application strategies and weed emergence showed that inputs applied by farmers increased with weed densities in beet and forage maize, and there was no evidence of bias. Expand
Cumulative impact of GM herbicide-tolerant cropping on arable plants assessed through species-based and functional taxonomies
TLDR
Species accumulation gave an indication of potential positive or negative consequences for regional species pools of replacing a conventional practice with GMHT weed management, and a range of indicators, through which diversity was assessed by both species and functional type, and at both site and regional scales, gave more insight into effects of GMHT treatment. Expand
Seedbank and Field Emergence of Weeds in Glyphosate-Resistant Cropping Systems in the United States
TLDR
The results justify further research to clarify the complexities of crops grown with herbicide-resistance traits to provide a more complete characterization of their culture and local adaptation to the weed seedbank. Expand
Relations between the oilseed rape volunteer seedbank, and soil factors, weed functional groups and geographical location in the UK
TLDR
Data mining indicated previously unfound correlations between oilseed rape abundance, total seedbank and several other factors, notably percent of nitrogen and percent of carbon in the soil, all of which were smallest in the centre of arable production in southern England and greatest in the surrounding south-west, west and north. Expand
Invertebrate responses to the management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant and conventional spring crops. II. Within-field epigeal and aerial arthropods.
The effects of the management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops on the abundances of aerial and epigeal arthropods were assessed in 66 beet, 68 maize and 67 spring oilseed rapeExpand
Transgene escape in sugar beet production fields: data from six years farm scale monitoring.
TLDR
The gene flow from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is described in a multi-year and multi-crop monitoring study on farmers' fields at two locations that has been carried out since 1995 and analyzed two sugar beet lines that have been genetically transformed for herbicide resistance. Expand
Herbicide resistance and biodiversity: agronomic and environmental aspects of genetically modified herbicide-resistant plants
TLDR
The analysed data and experiences do not support statements that herbicide-resistant crops provide consistently better yields than conventional crops or reduce herbicide amounts, and show that the adoption of herbicides- resistant crops impacts agronomy, agricultural practice, and weed management and contributes to biodiversity loss in several ways. Expand
Guidance on risk assessment of herbicide tolerant GM plants by the European Food Safety Authority
In the European Union, Directive 2001/18 requires that environmental consequences of changes in the management of GM crops are evaluated in applications. In the case of GMHT crops this includesExpand
Invertebrate responses to the management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant and conventional spring crops. I. Soil-surface-active invertebrates.
  • D. Brooks, D. Bohan, +30 authors M. J. Walker
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 2003
TLDR
Differences between GMHT and conventional crop herbicide management had a significant effect on the capture of most surface-active invertebrate species and higher taxa tested in at least one crop, and these differences reflected the phenology and ecology of the invertebrates. Expand
Invertebrates and vegetation of field margins adjacent to crops subject to contrasting herbicide regimes in the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops.
  • D. Roy, D. Bohan, +11 authors L. Firbank
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 2003
TLDR
The effects of management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops on adjacent field margins were assessed, with 24% fewer butterflies in margins of GMHT spring oilseed rape and the likely cause is the lower nectar supply in GMHT tilled margins and crop edges. Expand
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References

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An introduction to the Farm‐Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide‐tolerant crops
1. Several genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops have cleared most of the regulatory hurdles required for commercial growing in the United Kingdom. However, concerns have beenExpand
Crop management and agronomic context of the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops.
  • G. Champion, M. May, +15 authors M. R. Thomas
  • Medicine
  • Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 2003
TLDR
Regression analysis of herbicide-application strategies and weed emergence showed that inputs applied by farmers increased with weed densities in beet and forage maize, and there was no evidence of bias. Expand
Design, analysis and statistical power of the Farm-Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops
Summary 1 The effects on British farmland wildlife of the management of four genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops are currently being studied in a 5-year trial termed the Farm-ScaleExpand
Invertebrate responses to the management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant and conventional spring crops. II. Within-field epigeal and aerial arthropods.
The effects of the management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops on the abundances of aerial and epigeal arthropods were assessed in 66 beet, 68 maize and 67 spring oilseed rapeExpand
Invertebrate responses to the management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant and conventional spring crops. I. Soil-surface-active invertebrates.
  • D. Brooks, D. Bohan, +30 authors M. J. Walker
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 2003
TLDR
Differences between GMHT and conventional crop herbicide management had a significant effect on the capture of most surface-active invertebrate species and higher taxa tested in at least one crop, and these differences reflected the phenology and ecology of the invertebrates. Expand
Invertebrates and vegetation of field margins adjacent to crops subject to contrasting herbicide regimes in the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops.
  • D. Roy, D. Bohan, +11 authors L. Firbank
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 2003
TLDR
The effects of management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops on adjacent field margins were assessed, with 24% fewer butterflies in margins of GMHT spring oilseed rape and the likely cause is the lower nectar supply in GMHT tilled margins and crop edges. Expand
A novel approach to the use of genetically modified herbicide tolerant crops for environmental benefit
  • A. Dewar, M. May, +6 authors J. Pidgeon
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 2003
TLDR
A novel weed–management system for GMHT sugar beet, based on band spraying, which exploits the flexibility offered by the broad–spectrum partner herbicides to demonstrate that creative use of GMHT technology could be a powerful tool for developing more sustainable farming systems in the future. Expand
Responses of plants and invertebrate trophic groups to contrasting herbicide regimes in the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops.
  • C. Hawes, A. J. Haughton, +16 authors G. Squire
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 2003
TLDR
The Farm Scale Evaluations have demonstrated over 3 years and throughout the UK that herbivores, detritivores and many of their predators and parasitoids in arable systems are sensitive to the changes in weed communities that result from the introduction of new herbicide regimes. Expand
Herbicide-tolerant crops in agriculture: oilseed rape as a case study
TLDR
This paper addresses questions surrounding the possible introduction of transgenic varieties into European agriculture, with special emphasis on oilseed rape production in the UK, but includes examples from other crops and countries where appropriate. Expand
A model for the impact of herbicide tolerance on the performance of oilseed rape as a volunteer weed
TLDR
A life cycle model of volunteer oilseed rape was constructed, incorporating existing information on physiological processes such as emergence pattern, longevity of buried seed, death rates of various structures and flowering and seeding as functions of density, and a simplified model for the seedbank dynamics was developed. Expand
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