On the permanence of stored information in the human brain.

  title={On the permanence of stored information in the human brain.},
  author={Elizabeth F Loftus and Geoffrey R. Loftus},
  journal={The American psychologist},
  volume={35 5},
Many people believe that information that is stored in long-term memory is permanent, citing examples of "retrieval techniques" that are alleged to uncover previously forgotten information. Such tech- niques include hypnosis, psychoanalytic procedures, methods for eliciting spontaneous and other conscious recoveries, and—perhaps most important—the electri- cal stimulation of the brain reported by Wilder Pen- field and his associates. In this article we first evaluate • the evidence and conclude… Expand
Hypotheses on mnemonic information processing by the brain.
  • H. Markowitsch
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • The International journal of neuroscience
  • 1985
It is hypothesized that even from circumscribed brain damage it is not justifiable to conclude that the lesioned structure is solely or principally responsible for the observed mnemonic changes, as the brain acts in an integrative way, that is, on the basis of a wide-spread network of neuronal information processing. Expand
The Recovery of Unconscious (Inaccessible) Memories: Laboratory Studies of Hypermnesia
Publisher Summary This chapter focuses on the recovery of unconscious memories. Potzl heightened sensitivities result from the destruction of inhibitory mechanisms that normally block maladaptiveExpand
Failures of memory and the fate of forgotten memories
This review is intended primarily to provide cognitive benchmarks and perhaps a new mindset for behavioral neuroscientists who study memory, with a conclusion that most forgetting is due to retrieval failure as opposed to irreversible erasure of memory. Expand
Human learning and memory.
There have been several notable recent trends in the area of learning and memory. Problems with the episodic/semantic distinction have become more apparent, and new efforts have been made (exemplarExpand
How Dreams and Memory May Be Related
This paper presents a theory of dreams and long-term memory structure that proposes that both entities are closely related. The theory is based on a variation of Freud’s dream theory: (1) Freud’sExpand
Metamemory knowledge and the accuracy of flashbulb memories
Psychology students at the Jagiellonian University recalled the circumstances of hearing about the 11 September terrorist attack on the United States three times, i.e., within 21 days of the attack, in January 2002, and finally in June 2002, when half of the students participated in an intensive 30‐hour course on autobiographical memory. Expand
Editing misleading information from memory: Evidence for the coexistence of original and postevent information
When misleading postevent information biases one’s memory for an event, what is the fate of the original, accurate information? One possibility is that the new information and the originalExpand
Impairing existing declarative memory in humans by disrupting reconsolidation
It is demonstrated that human declarative memory can be selectively rewritten during reconsolidation, and the amnesic effect persists for at least 24 h, cannot be attributed solely to source confusion and is attainable only when relearning targets specific existing memories for impairment. Expand
A Functional and Cognitive Analysis of Infant Long-Term Retention
It is widely thought that the brain of the young infant is not sufficiently developed to store and maintain memories over the long term. The hippocampus, for example, which plays a major role inExpand
Eavesdropping on Memory.
  • E. Loftus
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Annual review of psychology
  • 2017
My professional life as an experimental psychologist, in which I've eavesdropped on the malleable nature of memory, as well as many personal experiences that may have influenced my thinking and choices are described. Expand


Search and retrieval processes in long-term memory
A theory of human memory is described in which a distinction is made between three memory stores: the sensory register, the short-term store, and the long- term store, a store which is considered to be a permanent repository for information. Expand
Recovery of unavailable perceptual input
Abstract Two experiments on the “recovery effect” are reported. In Exp. I, Ss' recall of a briefly flashed stimulus was tested before and after fantasy generation. Postfantasy recall was greater thanExpand
Encoding specificity and retrieval processes in episodic memory.
This paper describes and evaluates explanations offered by these theories to account for the effect of extralist cuing, facilitation of recall of list items by nonlist items. Expand
Leading questions and the eyewitness report
A total of 490 subjects, in four experiments, saw films of complex, fast-moving events, such as automobile accidents or classroom disruptions. The purpose of these experiments was to investigate howExpand
Semantic integration of verbal information into a visual memory.
The results suggest that information to which a witness is exposed after an event, whether that information is consistent or misleading, is integrated into the witness's memory of the event. Expand
Availability versus accessibility of information in memory for words
The S s learned, on a single trial, lists of words belonging to explicitly designated conceptual categories. Lists varied in terms of length (12, 24, and 48 words) and number of words per categoryExpand
Reconstruction of automobile destruction: An example of the interaction between language and memory
Two experiments are reported in which subjects viewed films of automobiled accidents and then answered questions about events occurring in the films. The question, “About how fast were the cars goingExpand
Reactions to blatantly contradictory information
In two experiments, subjects were shown a complex event and were later exposed to misinformation about that event. In addition, some subjects received a piece of blatantly contradictoryExpand
Is recognition memory all-or-none?
The retention of partial information concerning paired associates was shown as follows. After one paired presentation of either short word-short word pairs or simple design single letter pairs, adultExpand