On the origin of leprosy

  title={On the origin of leprosy},
  author={Stewart Thomas Cole and Marc Monot and Nadine Honoré},
  journal={BMC Proceedings},
Leprosy, a chronic human disease with potentially debilitating neurological consequences, results from infection with Mycobacterium leprae. This unculturable pathogen has undergone extensive reductive evolution, with half of its genome now occupied by pseudogenes. Using comparative genomics, we demonstrated that all extant cases of leprosy are attributable to a single clone whose dissemination worldwide can be retraced from analysis of very rare single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The disease… 

History and Phylogeography of Leprosy

Comparative genomics of four different strains from India, Brazil, Thailand, and the USA revealed remarkable conservation of the ~3.27-megabase genome yet uncovered 215 polymorphic sites, mainly single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), and a handful of new pseudogenes that helped retrace the evolution of M. leprae and the dissemination of leprosy.

Mycobacterium leprae: genes, pseudogenes and genetic diversity.

Comparative genomics of four different strains revealed remarkable conservation of the genome yet uncovered 215 polymorphic sites, mainly single nucleotide polymorphisms, and a handful of new pseudogenes, which helped retrace the evolution of M. leprae.

[Leprosy in a chimpanzee].

  • N. IshiiT. Udono Koichi Suzuki
  • Biology, Medicine
    Nihon Hansenbyo Gakkai zasshi = Japanese journal of leprosy : official organ of the Japanese Leprosy Association
  • 2011
A rare case of leprosy is found in a chimpanzee born in West Africa and brought to Japan around 2 years of age, and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis verified the West African origin of the bacilli.

Current status of leprosy: Epidemiology, basic science and clinical perspectives

The introduction of multidrug therapy has significantly contributed to a decrease in the prevalence of the disease, however, leprosy control activities, including monitoring and prevention programs, must be maintained.

Chapter 7 Past Leprae

The origin and the spread of the disease, as well as the dramatic decline of this infection in post-mediaeval Europe, can now be investigated.

Unsolved matters in leprosy: a descriptive review and call for further research

Challenges remain in the understanding of the epidemiology of leprosy including: the precise mode and route of transmission; the socioeconomic, environmental, and behavioral factors that promote its transmission; and strategies to achieve early diagnosis and prevent neurologic impairment.

On the Age of Leprosy

It is most likely that the leprosy bacilli started parasitic evolution in humans or early hominids millions of years ago, which makes leproSy the oldest human-specific infection.

Hanseníase: uma doença genética?

These studies indicate that a favorable host genetic make-up, combined with environmental and pathogen-related variables, has a high impact on the definition of susceptibility to both infection and clinical manifestation of leprosy.



Massive gene decay in the leprosy bacillus

Comparing the 3.27-megabase genome sequence of an armadillo-derived Indian isolate of the leprosy bacillus with that of Mycobacterium tuberculosis provides clear explanations for these properties and reveals an extreme case of reductive evolution.

Microsatellite Mapping of Mycobacterium leprae Populations in Infected Humans

Comparison of skin and nerve lesions suggests that the evolution of disease within an individual involves the expansion of multiple distinct subpopulations of M. leprae, a useful tool for tracking short transmission chains.

The decaying genome of Mycobacterium leprae.

Reductive evolution, gene decay and genome downsizing have eliminated entire metabolic pathways, together with their regulatory circuits and accessory functions, particularly those involved in catabolism, and may explain the unusually long generation time and account for the inability to culture the leprosy bacillus.

Multiple Polymorphic Loci for Molecular Typing of Strains of Mycobacterium leprae

Nine new polymorphic STRs in conjunction with automated methods for electrophoresis and size determination allows greater discrimination between isolates of M. leprae and enhances the potential of this technique to track the transmission of leprosy.

Variable Numbers of TTC Repeats inMycobacterium leprae DNA from Leprosy Patients and Use in Strain Differentiation

It is indicated that there are variable numbers of TTC repeats in a noncoding region of M. leprae strains and that the TTC region may be useful for strain differentiation for epidemiological investigations of leprosy.

Use of an ordered cosmid library to deduce the genomic organization of Mycobacterium leprae

In an attempt to unify the genetic and biological research on Mycobacterium leprae, the aetiological agent of leprosy, a cosmid library was constructed and then ordered by a combination of

Repetitive sequences in Mycobacterium leprae and their impact on genome plasticity.

Evidence is presented that loss of synteny, inversion and genome downsizing may have resulted from recombination between dispersed copies of these repetitive elements of M. leprae.

Traces of Human Migrations in Helicobacter pylori Populations

Helicobacter pylori, a chronic gastric pathogen of human beings, can be divided into seven populations and subpopulations with distinct geographical distributions. These modern populations derive

Deciphering the biology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the complete genome sequence

The complete genome sequence of the best-characterized strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, H37Rv, has been determined and analysed in order to improve the understanding of the biology of this slow-growing pathogen and to help the conception of new prophylactic and therapeutic interventions.