On the origin of contact-electrification

@article{Wang2019OnTO,
  title={On the origin of contact-electrification},
  author={Zhong Lin Wang and Aurelia Chi Wang},
  journal={Materials Today},
  year={2019}
}

Unraveling Temperature‐Dependent Contact Electrification between Sliding‐Mode Triboelectric Pairs

The underlying mechanism on contact electrification (CE) has remained a topic of debate over centuries, and it is argued to be due to electron transfer, ion transfer, and/or even material species

Probing Contact‐Electrification‐Induced Electron and Ion Transfers at a Liquid–Solid Interface

It is demonstrated that electron transfer plays the dominant role during CE between liquids and solids, which directly impacts the traditional understanding of the formation of an electric double layer at a liquid-solid interface in physical chemistry.

Research_9861463 1..10

Contact electrification (CE) involves a complex interplay of physical interactions in realistic material systems. For this reason, scientific consensus on the qualitative and quantitative importance

Probing Contact Electrification: A Cohesively Sticky Problem.

This discussion clearly shows that material transfer must be accounted for when discussing the source of charge generated by polymeric mechanical energy harvesters, and a correlated physical property to understand the triboelectric series is provided.

Electron Transfer as a Liquid Droplet Contacting a Polymer Surface.

This work proposes a model for the charge distribution at the liquid-solid interface, named Wang's hybrid layer, which involves the electron transfer, the ionization reaction, and the van der Waals force and proves that TENG is a probe for investigating charge transfer at interface of all phases.

Effects of Surface Functional Groups on Electron Transfer at Liquid-Solid Interfacial Contact Electrification.

The discoveries in this work support the "two-step" model about the formation of an electric double-layer (Wang model), in which the electron transfer occurs first when the liquids contact the solids for the very first time.

Scanning Probing of the Tribovoltaic Effect at the Sliding Interface of Two Semiconductors

The results suggest that the tribo-current is induced by the tribovoltaic effect, in which the electron-hole pairs at the sliding interface are excited by the energy release during friction, which may be due to the transition of electrons between the surface states during contact, or bond formation across the sliding interfaces.
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References

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On the Electron‐Transfer Mechanism in the Contact‐Electrification Effect

A new method is reported to quantitatively investigate real-time charge transfer in CE via triboelectric nanogenerator as a function of temperature, which reveals that electron transfer is the dominant process for CE between two inorganic solids.

Electron Transfer in Nanoscale Contact Electrification: Photon Excitation Effect

The results suggest that there exists a threshold photon energy for releasing the triboelectric charges from the surface, which is 4.1 eV, and a photoelectron emission model is proposed to describe light-induced charge decay on a dielectric surface.

Electron Transfer in Nanoscale Contact Electrification: Effect of Temperature in the Metal–Dielectric Case

A thermionic-emission band-structure model is proposed to describe the electron transfer between two solids at different temperatures and suggests that CE can occur between two identical materials owing to the existence of a local temperature difference arising from the nanoscale rubbing of surfaces with different curvatures/roughness.

Contact-Electrification between Two Identical Materials: Curvature Effect.

By preparing a contact-separation mode triboelectric nanogenerator using two pieces of an identical material, the direction of charge transfer during contact-electrification is studied regarding its dependence on curvatures of the sample surfaces, and a curvature-dependent charge transfer model is proposed by introducing curvatures-induced energy shifts of the surface states.

Effect of contact- and sliding-mode electrification on nanoscale charge transfer for energy harvesting

The process of charge transfer based on triboelectrification (TE) and contact electrification (CE) has been recently utilized as the basis for a new and promising energy harvesting technology, i.e.,

Raising the Working Temperature of a Triboelectric Nanogenerator by Quenching Down Electron Thermionic Emission in Contact‐Electrification

By designing and preparing a rotating free-standing mode Ti/SiO2 TENG, the relationship between CE and temperature is revealed and it is found that the dominant deterring factor of CE at high temperatures is the electron thermionic emission.

Manipulating nanoscale contact electrification by an applied electric field.

The modulation effect of the electric field on contact electrification is enhanced for a thinner dielectric layer and can potentially be utilized to enhance the output performance of energy harvesting devices or nullify contact electric charge transfer in applications where this effect is undesirable.
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