On the nature and direction of relationships between constructs and measures.

@article{Edwards2000OnTN,
  title={On the nature and direction of relationships between constructs and measures.},
  author={Jeffrey R. Edwards and Richard P. Bagozzi},
  journal={Psychological methods},
  year={2000},
  volume={5 2},
  pages={155-74}
}
Theory development typically focuses on relationships among theoretical constructs, placing little emphasis on relationships between constructs and measures. In most cases, constructs are treated as causes of their measures. However, this causal flow is sometimes reversed, such that measures are viewed as causes of constructs. Procedures have been developed to identify and estimate models that specify constructs as causes or effects of measures. However, these procedures provide little guidance… CONTINUE READING
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