# On the measurement of frequency and of its sample variance with high-resolution counters

@article{Rubiola2005OnTM, title={On the measurement of frequency and of its sample variance with high-resolution counters}, author={Enrico Rubiola and François Vernotte and Vincent Giordano}, journal={Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and Exposition, 2005.}, year={2005}, pages={4 pp.-} }

A frequency counter measures the input frequency nu averaged over a suitable time tau, versus the reference clock. Beside clock interpolation, modern counters improve the resolution by averaging multiple measurements highly overlapped. In the presence of white noise, the overlapping technique improves the square uncertainty from sigma nu 2 prop1/tau2 to sigmanu 2 prop1/tau. This is important because the input trigger integrates white noise over the full instrument bandwidth, which is usually of…

## 83 Citations

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