On the meaning of alarm calls: functional reference in an avian vocal system

  title={On the meaning of alarm calls: functional reference in an avian vocal system},
  author={Christopher S. Evans and Linda Evans and Peter R. Marler},
  journal={Animal Behaviour},
Abstract Abstract. Male chickens, Gallus gallus , produce qualitatively different alarm calls in response to terrestrial and aerial predators. Field observations suggest that ground alarm calls are evoked principally by animals moving on the substrate, while aerial alarm calls are produced in response to objects moving overhead. In the present study, both types of alarm call were elicited in the laboratory using visual stimuli presented on a video-monitor. Aerial alarm calls were reliably… Expand

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