On the mathematics of emergence

@article{Cucker2007OnTM,
  title={On the mathematics of emergence},
  author={F. Cucker and S. Smale},
  journal={Japanese Journal of Mathematics},
  year={2007},
  volume={2},
  pages={197-227}
}
Abstract.We describe a setting where convergence to consensus in a population of autonomous agents can be formally addressed and prove some general results establishing conditions under which such convergence occurs. Both continuous and discrete time are considered and a number of particular examples, notably the way in which a population of animals move together, are considered as particular instances of our setting. 
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