# On the implausibility of classical client blind quantum computing

@article{Aaronson2017OnTI, title={On the implausibility of classical client blind quantum computing}, author={Scott Aaronson and Alexandru Cojocaru and Alexandru Gheorghiu and Elham Kashefi}, journal={ArXiv}, year={2017}, volume={abs/1704.08482} }

We define the functionality of delegated pseudo-secret random qubit generator (PSRQG), where a classical client can instruct the preparation of a sequence of random qubits at some distant party. Their classical description is (computationally) unknown to any other party (including the distant party preparing them) but known to the client. We emphasize the unique feature that no quantum communication is required to implement PSRQG. This enables classical clients to perform a class of quantum…

## 33 Citations

On the Possibility of Classical Client Blind Quantum Computing

- Computer Science, PhysicsCryptogr.
- 2021

Using the functionality of delegated pseudo-secret random qubit generator (PSRQG), a classical client can instruct the preparation of a sequence of random qubits at some distant party, one could achieve a purely classical-client computational secure verifiable delegated universal quantum computing (also referred to as verifiable blind quantum computation).

Delegated Pseudo-Secret Random Qubit Generator

- Computer ScienceArXiv
- 2018

Using the functionality of delegated pseudo-secret random qubit generator (PSRQG), one could achieve for the first time a purely classical-client computational secure verifiable delegated universal quantum computing (also referred to as verifiable blind quantum computation).

QFactory: classically-instructed remote secret qubits preparation

- Computer Science, MathematicsIACR Cryptol. ePrint Arch.
- 2019

This contribution defines a simpler (basic) primitive consisting of only BB84 states, and gives a protocol that realizes this primitive and that is secure against the strongest possible adversary (an arbitrarily deviating malicious server).

Impossibility of blind quantum sampling for classical client

- Mathematics, Computer ScienceQuantum Inf. Comput.
- 2019

If a completely classical client can blindly delegate sampling of subuniversal models, such as the DQC1 model and the IQP model, then the polynomial-time hierarchy collapses to the third level.

Secure Quantum Two-Party Computation: Impossibility and Constructions

- Computer ScienceIACR Cryptol. ePrint Arch.
- 2020

This work presents a first, simple and modular, construction of one-sided quantum two-party computation and quantum oblivious transfer over classical networks, and introduces the notion of oblivious quantum function evaluation (OQFE).

Delegating Quantum Computation in the Quantum Random Oracle Model

- Computer Science, PhysicsTCC
- 2019

A new scheme for delegating a large circuit family, which is non-interactive, requires very little quantum computation from the client, and can be proved secure in the quantum random oracle model, without relying on additional assumptions, such as the existence of fully homomorphic encryption.

Quantum Shell Games: How to Classically Delegate the Preparation of Authenticated Quantum States

- 2019

We propose novel protocols for verifiable, classically instructed remote state preparation. Our “Shell Game” protocols require constantly many rounds of communication to prepare an arbitrary number…

Flow ambiguity: A path towards classically driven blind quantum computation

- Computer Science, PhysicsArXiv
- 2016

This work shows how a classical client can exploit the ambiguity in the flow of information in measurement-based quantum computing to construct a protocol for hiding critical aspects of a computation delegated to a remote quantum computer.

Relativistic verifiable delegation of quantum computation

- Physics, Computer ScienceArXiv
- 2017

This work presents the first verifiable delegation scheme where a classical client delegates her quantum computation to two entangled servers that are allowed to communicate, but respecting the plausible assumption that information cannot be propagated faster than speed of light.

Delegating Quantum Computation Using Only Hash Functions

- Computer Science, MathematicsArXiv
- 2018

A new scheme for delegating a large circuit family, which is not based on quantum one time pad, but on a new encoding called "entanglement encoding", which can be proved secure in the quantum random oracle model, without relying on additional assumptions.

## References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 78 REFERENCES

Garbled Quantum Computation

- Mathematics, PhysicsCryptogr.
- 2017

This contribution explores the possibility of extending the verifiable UBQC, and presents a “Yao”-type protocol for secure two-party quantum computation that is secure against a specious (quantum honest-but-curious) garbler, but in this case, against a (fully) malicious evaluator.

Blind quantum computing with two almost identical states

- Physics, Computer ScienceArXiv
- 2016

This work identifies sufficient criteria on the powers of the client, which still allow for secure blind quantum computation, in a universally composable framework, and provides a series of protocols, where each step reduces the number of differing states the client needs to be able to prepare.

Universal Blind Quantum Computation

- Computer Science, Mathematics2009 50th Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science
- 2009

The protocol is the first universal scheme which detects a cheating server, as well as the first protocol which does not require any quantum computation whatsoever on the client's side.

Delegating private quantum computations12

- Physics
- 2015

We give a protocol for the delegation of quantum computation on encrypted data. More specifically, we show that in a client–server scenario, where the client holds the encryption key for an encrypted…

Flow ambiguity: A path towards classically driven blind quantum computation

- Computer Science, PhysicsArXiv
- 2016

This work shows how a classical client can exploit the ambiguity in the flow of information in measurement-based quantum computing to construct a protocol for hiding critical aspects of a computation delegated to a remote quantum computer.

How to Verify a Quantum Computation

- Mathematics, PhysicsTheory Comput.
- 2018

This work gives a new theoretical solution to a leading-edge experimental challenge, namely to the verification of quantum computations in the regime of high computational complexity, using a reduction to an entanglement-based protocol and showing that verification could be achieved at minimal cost compared to performing the computation.

Authentication of quantum messages

- Computer Science, PhysicsThe 43rd Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, 2002. Proceedings.
- 2002

A non-interactive scheme that enables A to both encrypt and authenticate an m qubit message by encoding it into m+s qubits, where the error probability decreases exponentially in the security parameter s, and a lower bound of 2m key bits for authenticating m qubits is given, which makes the protocol asymptotically optimal.

Blind quantum computation protocol in which Alice only makes measurements

- Physics
- 2013

Blind quantum computation is a new secure quantum computing protocol which enables Alice who does not have sufficient quantum technology to delegate her quantum computation to Bob who has a…

The Quantum Cut-and-Choose Technique and Quantum Two-Party Computation

- Mathematics, PhysicsArXiv
- 2017

A Quantum Computation Cut-and-Choose (QC-CC) technique which is a generalisation of the classical Cut- and-Choose in order to build quantum protocols secure against quantum covert adversaries.

A classical leash for a quantum system: command of quantum systems via rigidity of CHSH games

- Computer Science, PhysicsITCS '13
- 2013

A rigidity theorem is proved for the famous Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) game and allows us to establish that a quantum interactive proof system with a classical verifier is as powerful as one with a quantum verifier, or QMIP = MIP*.