On the geological availability of germanium

  title={On the geological availability of germanium},
  author={M. Frenzel and M. P. Ketris and J. Gutzmer},
  journal={Mineralium Deposita},
Based on a detailed statistical analysis of chemical data published in the scientific literature, estimates were made of the minimum amounts of recoverable Ge contained within sulphidic zinc ores and coals, given current processing technologies. It is expected that at least 119 kt (∼7 kt in zinc ores and ∼112 kt in coal) of recoverable germanium exist within proven reserves (at present stage of knowledge) at grades in excess of 100 ppm in sphalerite and 200 ppm in coal, while at least 440 kt… Expand
Quantifying the potential for recoverable resources of gallium, germanium and antimony as companion metals in Australia
Abstract Although critical to newly evolving and increasingly essential technologies, antimony (Sb), gallium (Ga), and germanium (Ge) are generally recovered as byproducts or ‘companion metals’ ofExpand
Quantifying the relative availability of high-tech by-product metals – The cases of gallium, germanium and indium
Abstract There are considerable concerns about the supply security of certain high-tech elements produced as by-products. To determine in how far these concerns are justified by the actualExpand
Germanium Isotope Geochemistry
Germanium (Ge) is a trace element in the Earth’s crust and natural waters, averaging about 1.6 ppm in rocks and minerals (El Wardani 1957; Bernstein 1985) and 75 picomol/L in seawater (Froelich andExpand
Assessing the supply potential of high-tech metals – A general method
The method presented is the first to enable such an assessment to be made in a reliable and transparent manner and shows that in addition to ensuring future adaptability of the results, availability curves are also useful for the assessment of the current supply regime of a given by-product. Expand
On the current and future availability of gallium
By-product availability curves were constructed for the production of gallium from bauxite, sulphidic zinc ores and coal. They were used to assess the nature of the current supply regime, as well asExpand
Redistribution of germanium during dynamic recrystallization of sphalerite
Rare metals are essential to the development of the “green” technologies that are at the core of low-carbon societies. In nature, these metals are frequently present in trace amounts scattered inExpand
Impact of recrystallization and metamorphism on the mobility of germanium and related elements in orogenic Pb-Zn deposits : example of the Pyrenean Axial Zone mineralizations (France-Spain)
Rare metals are essential to the development of the green technologies that are at the core of emerging low-carbon societies. Germanium is a rare element considered critical by the European Union andExpand
Germanium: Current and Novel Recovery Processes
Germanium (Ge) is considered a critical element due to its many industrial applications; Ge is a metalloid used in solar cells, fiber optics, metallurgy, chemotherapy, and polymerization catalysis.Expand
Distribution Characteristics and Enrichment Model of Germanium in Coal: An Example from the Yimin Coalfield, Hailar Basin, China
As a rare and dispersed element, germanium cannot form independent ore deposits but can be enriched in coal and sphalerite. The target of this research is the Cretaceous Ge-rich coal seam of theExpand
Chapter 2 Germanium : Current and Novel Recovery Processes
Germanium (Ge) is considered a critical element due to its many industrial applications; Ge is a metalloid used in solar cells, fiber optics, metallurgy, chemotherapy, and polymerization catalysis.Expand


Geochemistry and origin of elements in some UK coals
Abstract Twenty-four UK coals ranging in rank with 4.6%–37.6% volatile matter were analysed for 46 major and trace elements. The samples were obtained from the UK Coal Bank and are representative ofExpand
Zur geochemie des germaniums
Abstract The geochemistry of germanium is discussed by means of about a hundred analyses in recent literature and about a hundred own spectrochemical determinations. Studied are: 1. (1) TheExpand
Metalliferous coals: A review of the main genetic and geochemical types
Abstract This paper presents a review of the genetic types and geochemical processes that have formed ‘metalliferous’ coals around the world. Primary attention is given to elements in coal that areExpand
Anomalous Concentrations of Trace Elements in the Spetsugli Germanium Deposit (Pavlovka Brown Coal Deposit, Southern Primorye): Communication 2. Rubidium and Cesium
Data on Rb and Cs concentrations in typical (in terms of Ge content) and Ge-bearing coals, as well as host sedimentary rocks and underlying granites, are reported. It is shown that all MioceneExpand
Metallogenesis of germanium—A review
Abstract Germanium (Ge) is a scarce, but not an extremely rare element in the Earth's crust (about 1.6 ppm Ge crustal average). Principal geochemical substitutions and mineral associations of GeExpand
Critical metals handbook
Mankind is using a greater variety of metals in greater quantities than ever before. As a result there is increasing global concern over the long-term availability of secure and adequate supplies ofExpand
Geochemistry of minor elements in coals of the Northern Great Plains coal province. [Be, B, Ti, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, Mo, Sn, Y, La]
The Northern Great Plains coal province encompasses an area in four northcentral States. A geochemical study has been made of the following 15 minor elements in the coals: boron, beryllium, titanium,Expand
The distribution of trace quantities of germanium between metal, silicate and sulflde phases
Abstract The distribution of trace quantities of Ge between metal, silicate and sulfide phases has been studied hydrothermally at controlled PO2 by means of oxygen buffer techniques. RadioactiveExpand
Germanium isotopic systematics in Ge-rich coal from the Lincang Ge deposit, Yunnan, Southwestern China
Abstract Organic matter plays an important role in the transport and precipitation of germanium (Ge) in coal-hosted Ge deposits. In this paper, Ge isotopes of coal samples and their combustionExpand
Germanium geochemistry and mineralogy
Abstract Germanium is enriched in the following geologic environments: 1. (1) iron meteorites and terrestrial iron-nickel; 2. (2) sulfide ore deposits, particularly those hosted by sedimentary rocks;Expand