# On the empirical relevance of Condorcet’s paradox

@article{Deemen2014OnTE, title={On the empirical relevance of Condorcet’s paradox}, author={A.M.A. van Deemen}, journal={Public Choice}, year={2014}, volume={158}, pages={311-330} }

Condorcet’s paradox occurs when there is no alternative that beats every other alternative by majority. The paradox may pose real problems to democratic decision making such as decision deadlocks and democratic paralysis. However, its relevance has been discussed again and again since the celebrated works of Arrow (Social choice and individual values, 1963) and Black (The theory of committees and elections, 1958). The discussion varies from one extreme to the other: from very relevant to…

## 17 Citations

Trump, Condorcet and Borda: Voting paradoxes in the 2016 Republican presidential primaries

- Sociology, Political ScienceEuropean Journal of Political Economy
- 2018

The organization of US presidential elections makes them potentially vulnerable to the “voting paradoxes” identified by social choice theorists but rarely documented in real-world elections. Using…

A commonsense assessment of Arrow’s theorem

- Mathematics
- 2016

Abstract The usual, pessimistic interpretation of Arrow’s General Possibility Theorem (often “Impossibility” in textbooks) is excessive. The impossibility defined by Arrow occurs only in presence of…

Borda paradox in the 2017 Iranian presidential election: empirical evidence from opinion polls

- Political Science
- 2019

Different voting paradoxes identified by social choice theorists have rarely been documented in real-world elections. The collected data from the opinion polls in the 2017 Iranian presidential…

Bargaining in the Presence of Condorcet Cycles: The Role of Asymmetries

- Economics
- 2015

This paper reports results from a laboratory experiment studying the role of asymmetries, both in payoffs and recognition probabilities, in a model of strategic bargaining with Condorcet cycles.…

Condorcet Loser in 2016: Apparently Trump; Condorcet Winner: Not Clinton?

- American Politics Research
- 2021

Using thermometer score data from the ANES, we show that while there may have been no clear-cut Condorcet winner among the 2016 US presidential candidates, there appears to have been a Condorcet…

Political actors playing games: Theory and experiments

- Political Science
- 2015

Political actors exert enormous influence over our daily lives. Their influence on economic activities cannot be underestimated. Voters determine the distribution of political power, political…

The cyclical social choice of primary vs. general election candidates: A note on the US 2016 presidential election

- Political Science
- 2016

The manner in which US presidential elections are organized make them ripe for empirical manifestations of the “voting paradoxes” identified by social choice theorists. This note illustrates the…

An Analysis of Random Elections with Large Numbers of Voters

- Mathematics, Computer ScienceArXiv
- 2020

The central limit theorem, graph homology, and linear algebra are applied to analyze how likely situations are to occur for large numbers of voters and show that in elections with the number of voters going to infinity, margin graphs that are more cyclic in a certain precise sense are less likely to occur.

Two Possible Paradoxes in Numerical Comparisons of Optimization Algorithms

- Computer ScienceICIC
- 2018

Comparison strategies of benchmarking optimization algorithms are considered and two possible paradoxes, namely the cycle ranking and the survival of the non-fittest, are deduced for three optimization algorithms’ comparison.

On the Number of Group-Separable Preference Profiles

- MathematicsGroup Decision and Negotiation
- 2019

The paper studies group-separable preference profiles. Such a profile is group-separable if for each subset of alternatives there is a partition in two parts such that each voter prefers each…

## References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 93 REFERENCES

An approach to empirical studies of voting paradoxes: An update and extension

- Economics
- 1983

By tradition, Public Choice theorists have pointed out many paradoxes of collective choice. The phenomenon of cyclical majorities and the more general issue of political equilibrium have proven to be…

The occurrence of the paradox of voting in University elections

- Economics
- 1970

Despite its theoretical importance for both normative and descriptive concerns, political scientists have largely ignored the paradox of voting because of the lack of solid evidence that it ever…

Some mathematical remarks on the paradox of voting

- Mathematics
- 1971

When a group of m individuals endeavours to choose a winner from a set of n alternatives by making all possible pairwise comparisons among the alternatives (using simple majority rule), there exists…

Majority Decision-Making with Partial Unidimensionality*

- Economics
- 1969

A major dilemma for majority decision-making occurs when the summation of transitive individual preference orderings results in an intransitive social ordering. The problems posed by this phenomenon,…

An Empirical Example of the Condorcet Paradox of Voting in a Large Electorate

- Economics
- 2001

Social choice theory suggests that the occurrence of cyclical collective preferences should be a widespread phenomenon, especially in large groups of decision-makers. However, empirical research has…

A mathematical solution for the probability of the paradox of voting.

- Mathematics, MedicineBehavioral science
- 1968

Through the use of this model, a general solution for the probability of the paradox is derived, together with an approximation for computational convenience, and some numerical results are given.

On the (Sample) Condorcet Efficiency of Majority Rule: An alternative view of majority cycles and social homogeneity

- Economics
- 2002

The Condorcet efficiency of a social choice procedure is usually defined as the probability that this procedure coincides with the majority winner (or majority ordering) in random samples, given a…

A Computer Simulation of the Paradox of Voting

- Economics
- 1966

This paper presents estimates of the probability that the occurrence of the Paradox of Voting,' commonly known as Arrow's Paradox, will prevent the selection of a majority issue when odd-sized…

The paradox of voting: probability calculations.

- Mathematics, MedicineBehavioral science
- 1968

It is shown that when all possible rankings of three alternatives are equally likely and the number of voters becomes very large, the probability of the paradox approaches a definite limit, vig .087.

The Unexpected Empirical Consensus Among Consensus Methods

- Psychology, MedicinePsychological science
- 2007

This work analyzed four elections of the American Psychological Association using a state-of-the-art multimodel, multimethod approach and found strong statistical support for an unexpected degree of empirical consensus among them in these elections.