On the distinction between density and crowding: some implications for future research.

@article{Stokols1972OnTD,
  title={On the distinction between density and crowding: some implications for future research.},
  author={Daniel Stokols},
  journal={Psychological review},
  year={1972},
  volume={79 3},
  pages={
          275-7
        }
}
  • D. Stokols
  • Published 1 May 1972
  • Psychology
  • Psychological review
A distinction is drawn between the physical condition, density, denned purely in terms of spatial parameters, and the experience of crowding, a motivational state aroused through the interaction of spatial, social, and personal factors, and directed toward the alleviation of perceived spatial restriction. The implications of this distinction for future research are discussed. 

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...

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