On the costs and benefits of emotional labor: a meta-analysis of three decades of research.


This article provides a quantitative review of the link of emotional labor (emotion-rule dissonance, surface acting, and deep acting) with well-being and performance outcomes. The meta-analysis is based on 494 individual correlations drawn from a final sample of 95 independent studies. Results revealed substantial relationships of emotion-rule dissonance… (More)
DOI: 10.1037/a0022876


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