The nucleoplasmic autoantigens RNP and Sm are of particular interest because of their associations with certain symptoms of mixed connective tissue disease and systemic lupus erythematosus. The RNP is generally thought to be a ribonucleoprotein and there is evidence that its RNA may be single-stranded. Experiments presented in this report are in support of the concept that the Sm-antigen may also be an RNA protein. Purified Sm-anti-Sm precipitates were shown to have high RNA contents and treatment of Sm-antigen with RNAase in a hypotonic medium strongly reduced in antigenicity. The latter effect indicates that the Sm-antigen may in contrast to the RNP contain double-stranded RNA, a possibility also suggested by the finding that the Sm-antigen was soluble in 2 M LiCl. The Sm-antigen was found further to differ from RNP in being selectively absorbed in BD-Sephadex, while RNP remained active in the supernatant. Cytochemical studies involving stimulation and inhibition experiments with lectins and RNA polymerase inhibitors showed that the Sm-antigen was, in distinction to RNP, sensitive to rifampicin but not to alpha-amanitine. This suggests that the RNAs of the nucleoplasmic antigens may be synthesized by different RNA polymerases.