# On the bias of the distance–redshift relation from gravitational lensing

@inproceedings{Kaiser2016OnTB, title={On the bias of the distance–redshift relation from gravitational lensing}, author={Nick Kaiser and John A. Peacock}, year={2016} }

A long standing question in cosmology is whether gravitational lensing changes the distance-redshift relation $D(z)$ or the mean flux density of sources. Interest in this has been rekindled by recent studies in non-linear relativistic perturbation theory that find biases in both the area of a surface of constant redshift and in the mean distance to this surface, with a fractional bias in both cases on the order of the mean squared convergence $\langle \kappa^2 \rangle$. Any such area bias could… CONTINUE READING

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## Lensing bias in the distance-redshift relation

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