On the automatic activation of attitudes.

  title={On the automatic activation of attitudes.},
  author={Russell H. Fazio and David M. Sanbonmatsu and Martha C. Powell and Frank R. Kardes},
  journal={Journal of personality and social psychology},
  volume={50 2},
We hypothesized that attitudes characterized by a strong association between the attitude object and an evaluation of that object are capable of being activated from memory automatically upon mere presentation of the attitude object. We used a priming procedure to examine the extent to which the mere presentation of an attitude object would facilitate the latency with which subjects could indicate whether a subsequently presented target adjective had a positive or a negative connotation. Across… Expand
The deautomatization of accessible attitudes
The attitudinal effects of repeatedly encountering an object in a setting where an attitude was unneeded were investigated. In three experiments, participants repeatedly recognized words with strongExpand
The Automatic Evaluation Effect: Unconditional Automatic Attitude Activation with a Pronunciation Task
Previous demonstrations of automatic attitude activation have used the same critical test of the presence of automaticity (Bargh, Chaiken, Govender, & Pratto, 1992; Chaiken & Bargh, 1993; Fazio,Expand
Attitude accessibility as a determinant of object construal and evaluation
Abstract Attitude accessibility, the ease with which a given attitude comes to mind, has been demonstrated to affect attention. The current experiments focus on the construal of multiplyExpand
On the orienting value of attitudes: attitude accessibility as a determinant of an object's attraction of visual attention.
Accessible attitudes provide the functional benefit of orienting an individual's visual attention toward objects with potential hedonic consequences, and attitude-evoking stimuli attract attention automatically. Expand
The generality of the automatic attitude activation effect.
The results of 3 experiments indicated that the automatic activation effect is a pervasive and relatively unconditional phenomenon that appears that most evaluations stored in memory become active automatically on the mere presence or mention of the object in the environment. Expand
Attitudes as Object-Evaluation Associations of Varying Strength.
  • R. Fazio
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Social cognition
  • 2007
A model of attitudes as object-evaluation associations of varying strength is summarized, along with research supporting the model's contention that at least some attitudes are represented in memory and activated automatically upon the individual's encountering the attitude object. Expand
On the generalization of attitude accessibility after repeated attitude expression
This finding suggests that the effect of attitude rehearsal on accessibility generalizes to attitudes towards untrained but semantically related attitude objects. Expand
A Structural and Process Analysis of the Implicit Association Test
Abstract The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is based on the observation that participants find it easier to respond in the same way to exemplars of two concepts when these concepts are similarExpand
How attitudes guide memory-based judgments: A two-process model
Abstract Two experiments investigate the process whereby attitudes bias memory-based judgments such as trait ratings in the direction of affective consistency. It is assumed that both the attitudeExpand
The in X uence of experimentally created extrapersonal associations on the Implicit Association Test
We examined the inXuence of extrapersonal associations (Olson & Fazio, 2004)—associations that neither form the basis of the attitude nor become activated automatically in response to the object—onExpand


Attitude accessibility, attitude-behavior consistency, and the strength of the object-evaluation association
Abstract Two experiments were conducted in order to examine the accessibility of attitudes from memory as a function of the manner of attitude formation. The findings of the first experimentExpand
Attitude accessibility as a moderator of the attitude-perception and attitude-behavior relations: an investigation of the 1984 presidential election.
It was hypothesized that the extent to which individuals' attitudes guide their subsequent perceptions of and behavior toward the attitude object is a function of the accessibility of those attitudesExpand
Attitude Accessibility as a Function of Repeated Attitudinal Expression
The accessibility of attitudes from memory was examined as a function of the strength of the association between the attitude object and the evaluation. The strength of the object-evaluationExpand
On the predictive validity of attitudes: The roles of direct experience and confidence1
Previous research has demonstrated that behavior is more accurately predicted from attitudes formed via direct, behavioral interaction with the attitude object than from attitudes developed viaExpand
Retrieval of attitude-relevant information from memory: Effects on susceptibility to persuasion and on intrinsic motivation.
A distinction was drawn between (a) classic views of attitudes as stable dispositions based on beliefs and prior experiences accessed from memory and (b) the self-perception analysis of attitudes asExpand
Attitudinal qualities relating to the strength of the attitude-behavior relationship☆
Abstract A study was conducted to examine the relation between each of several attitudinal qualities and attitude-behavior consistency. Subjects' attitudes toward volunterring to participate inExpand
At the psychological level the reasons for holding or for changing attitudes are found in the functions they perform for the individual, specifically the functions of adjustment, ego defense, valueExpand
Associative facilitation of word recognition as measured from a neutral prime
It is shown that lexical decision times to strong associates with an associative strength of approximately 40% are facilitated relative to targets following a neutral prime, “blank,” whereas very weak associates with less then 3% are neither facilitated nor inhibited. Expand
Priming in item recognition: Evidence for the propositional structure of sentences
A priming technique using item recognition was employed to investigate the structure of the memory representation of simple sentences. The experimental procedure involved presenting sentences to theExpand
Priming in item recognition: The organization of propositions in memory for text
A priming technique is presented that allows assessment of distances between propositional (idea) units in the memory representations of texts. A representation of the meaning of a paragraph can beExpand